Ahmad Sháh Durráni consolidated Afghánistán as a kingdom, ruling with an advisory council of tribal chiefs from 1747 until his death in 1773. His capital was Kandahar, replaced in his lifetime by Ahmad Shahi. His frontiers extended into modern Kashmir and Pakistan, although by 1770 he had suffered reversals at the hands of the Sikhs in the Punjab.
- Sykes, P. M., A History of Afghanistan. 2 vols. New York, 1975Google Scholar