• David Butler
  • Dennis Kavanagh


The rise of a mass electorate over the last century, with no countervailing rise in the parties’ resources to deal with it, has resulted in ever less emphasis on personal contact with the individual voter, and ever greater reliance on the mass media, above all on television. Increasingly, technology has concentrated power over election campaigns in the hands of national party managers.


Trade Union Election Campaign National Campaign Local Party Council House 
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  1. 9.
    see M. Pinto-Duschinsky, ‘Last minute charge by the Head Office Big Spenders’, Financial Times, 23 October 1987.Google Scholar
  2. see also M. Pinto-Duschinsky, article in Parliamentary Affairs, 1985.Google Scholar
  3. I. Crewe and M. Harrop (eds), Political Communications: the 1983 Election Campaign (Cambridge, 1986)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© David Butler and Dennis Kavanagh 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Butler
    • 1
  • Dennis Kavanagh
    • 2
  1. 1.Nuffield CollegeOxfordUK
  2. 2.University of NottinghamUK

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