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The Consumer End of the Food Chain

  • Berkeley Hill
  • Derek Ray
Chapter

Abstract

In the next three chapters we deal with the concept of a food chain, which reaches from the farmer at one end to the consumer at the other. The next chapter deals with the farmer and with those links in the chain between the farmer and the consumer which we refer to as the food industry, but in this chapter we deal with the last link in the chain — the consumer.

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Notes

  1. 1.
    CSO (1985) Annual Abstract of Statistics (London: HMSO).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Angel, L. J. and Hurdle, G. E. (1978) ‘The Nation’s Food — 40 years of change’, Economic Trends (London: HMSO) (April).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    FAO (1984) Food Balance Sheets, 1979–81 Average (Rome).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
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  6. 5.
    MAFF published the CLE results as ‘Output and Utilisation’ reports until the 1980s. Tables are published in a number of CSO reports including the Annual Abstract of Statistics (London: HMSO).Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    See for example, Centre for Agricultural Strategy (1979) National Food Policy in the UK (As Report No. 5 University of Reading) p. 64.Google Scholar
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    Reports are entitled Household Food Consumption and Expenditure, Annual Report of the National Food Survey Committee, MAFF, (London: HMSO). They are generally published two years after the data is collected and MAFF publish quarterly updates of Food Survey statistics in the series ‘Food Facts’. For a critique of the survey see, Frank, J. D., Fallows, S. J. and Wheelock, V. J. (1984) ‘Britain’s National Food Survey’, Food Policy 53–67.Google Scholar
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    Lund, P. J. and Derry, B. J. (1985), ‘Household Food Consumption: the influence of household characteristics’, J. Ag. Econ. 36:1, 41–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    See for instance, Burnett, J. (1979) Plenty and Want: A Social History of Diet in England from 1815 to the Present Day (Rev. edn, London: Scolar Press).Google Scholar
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  15. 14.
    Food stamps were used by 21 million Americans in 1983–4. USDA (1985) National Food Review, 29.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
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  17. 17.
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  21. 21.
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  22. 22.
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  23. 23.
    The extra fat on red meats may be trimmed off before or after cooking and so not be eaten. See Meat and Livestock Commission (1986) Meat: The health issue in perspective (2nd edn, Banbury).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Taken from NACNE (1983) Discussion Paper on Proposals for Nutritional Guidelines for Health Education in Britain, (London: Health Education Council). Prepared for NACNE under an ad hoc working party chaired by Professor W. P. T. James.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    CSO (1985) Monthly Digest of Statistics (November). The unemployment rate in 1980 was 6.8 per cent.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
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  27. 27.
    Hill, S. (1985) Specialist Foods (Watford: 19D).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    COMA (1984) Diet and Cardiovascular Disease, report of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy, DHSS (London: HMSO).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
  30. 30.
    Sugar is recognised as a major cause of dental caries. See, for instance, British Dental Health Foundation (1984) The No Sugar Cook Book (Milton Keynes).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Health Education Council (1984) Food for Thought. p. 15. Besides a number of Health Education Council booklets and DHSS surveys reported in 1968 and 1975 of the diet of children, the London Food Commission has published guidelines for pre-school children. Food and Drink for Under-Fives (June 1985) p. 21.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    For a criticism of the slowness of government action, see Walker, C. and Cannon, G. (1984) The Food Scandal (London: Century).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Foxall, G. R. and Haskin, C. G. (1985) ‘Naughty but Nice’: Meanings of Meat in the 1980s’, Food Marketing1:3, 56–69.Google Scholar
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  35. 35.
    Royal College of Physicians (1976) ‘Prevention of coronary heart disease’, Journal of the RCP, 10: 213–75.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Health Education Council (1978) Eating for Health (London).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Centre for Agricultural Strategy, University of Reading: Robbins, C. J. (ed.) (1978) Food, Health and Farming: a Report of Panels on the Implications for UK Agriculture; Report No.4 (1978) A Strategy for the UK Dairy Industry; Report No.5 (1979) National Food Policy in the UK. Since 1982, the Food Policy Research Institute at the University of Bradford, under Professor Vernon Wheelock, has produced a number of discussion papers and articles exploring these and related themes further.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    WHO (1982) Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease (Geneva) WHO Technical Report Series, 678: p. 53.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    NACNE (1983) op. cit. See also Cannon and Walker (1984), op. cit. andGoogle Scholar
  40. Meat and Livestock Commission (1986), op. cit.Google Scholar
  41. 40.
    MAFF (1985) Press Release, No. 162, 24 June 1985. MAFF (1985) Press Release, No. 78, 12 March 1985. It may be possible to accommodate much of the recommended reduction in fat consumption by marginal changes in the fat content of carcase meat and milk. See Jones A. S. (1984) ‘Food quality and human health: how can farmers respond?’ pp. 64–73 in RURAL, The Way Ahead (Bore Place, Chiddingstone, Kent).Google Scholar

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© Berkeley Hill and Derek Ray 1987

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  • Berkeley Hill
  • Derek Ray

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