This paper touches upon some of the problems of the meaning of terms found in certain legal instruments relating to space. A crucial one — the ABM Treaty — is not examined, because of the thorough analysis it has received in a recent publication1.


Nuclear Weapon Outer Space Legal Rule Ballistic Missile World Affair 
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  1. 1.
    T.K. Longstreth, J.E. Pike and J.B. Rhinelander, The Impact of US and Soviet Ballistic Missile Defense Programs on the ABM Treaty, a Report of the National Campaign to Save the ABM Treaty, March 1985. See also E.P. Thompson (ed) Star Wars. Penguin Books, 1985, chapter 4.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    E.V.C. Greenberg, Report for Greenpeace International, NPT Prohibition on the Transfer and Development of Nuclear Explosive-Based Defensive Weapons, undated, but accompan- ied by a press release dated 25 June 1985.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    A/40/192. It is interesting to note that in Soviet News, London, 21 August 1985, the same material is published in full, but the phrase ‘Peaceful Exploitation of Outer Space’ is given as ‘Peaceful Exploration of Outer Space’ (emphasis added). In the English language, and in natural resource law, there is a vast difference between exploration and exploitation.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    See Maxwell Bruce, Antarctica: A Zone of Peace? Proceedings of the 35th Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs, Campinas, Brazil, 3–8 July 1985, pp. 121–25.Google Scholar

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© Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maxwell Bruce

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