Pluralism is the belief that there are, or ought to be, many things. It offers a defence of multiplicity in beliefs, institutions and societies, and opposes ‘monism’ — the belief that there is, or ought to be, only one thing. Pluralism began as a philosophy which argued that reality cannot be explained by one substance or principle. Similarly, political pluralism recognizes the existence of diversity in social, institutional and ideological practices, and values that diversity.
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