The Political Transition

  • Michel Chossudovsky
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter focuses on the political process leading up to the consolidation of a new leadership group within the Chinese Communist Party in the aftermath of the 1976 coup d’état. Whereas this ‘political transition’, which was instrumental in the adoption and implementation of the Central Committee’s economic and social reforms, is pinpointed here as coinciding with the events of 1976 which led to the demise of the so-called ‘Gang of Four’, the ‘Rightist line’ within the party had gained considerable impetus since the late 1960s, and many f the economic and social changes were, in fact, present at a much earlier stage as a result of the confrontations of the Cultural Revolution and its aftermath. The political form of the Shanghai commune was abandoned and replaced by the revolutionary committees set up after 1967. These committees and other organs of revolutionary power, such as the workers’ management groups set up in the first years of the Cultural Revolution, were, however, gradually encroached upon by the party bureaucracy.1 By 1971, the revolutionary committees in the factories had in practice been superseded by unelected party committees which reinstated the authority of the factory cadres and engineers.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Charles Bettelheim, ‘The Great Leap Backward’, Monthly Review, XXX: 3 (1978), p. 42.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Roger Howard, Mao Tse-tung and the Chinese People ( New York: Monthly Review Press, 1977 ) p. 355.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ibid., p. 356.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Quoted in Roger Howard, Mao-Tse-tung and the Chinese People p. 356.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Parris Chang, ‘Chinese Politics, Deng’s Turbulent Quest’, Problems of Communism (January-February 1981), p. 102.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Speech by Hua Guofeng on 18 September 1976, Beijing Review, XIX:39 (1976), quoted in Charles Bettelheim, ‘The Great Leap Backward’, Monthly Review, XXX: 3 (1978), p. 88.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Charles Bettelheim, ‘The Great Leap Backward’, Monthly Review, XXX: 3 (1978), pp. 88–9.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ibid., p. 89.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Parris Chang, ‘Chinese Politics, Deng’s Turbulent Quest’, Problems of Communism (January-February 1981), p. 4.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ibid., p. 4.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ibid., p. 9.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ibid., p. 9.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ibid., p. 13.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ibid., p. 13.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Deng Xiaoping, Selected Works ( Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1984 ), p. 238.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Amnesty International, China, Violations of Human Rights ( London: Amnesty International Publications, 1984 ) pp. 12–13.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ibid., p. 12.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Deng Xiaoping, Selected Works pp. 238–339 (my italics).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Amnesty International, China, Violations of Human Rights, p. 14.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ibid., pp. 6–7.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ibid., p. 7.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ibid., p. 9.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ibid., p. 9.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hongqi (Red Flag), No. 2 (February 1982) quoted in China Daily, 12 February 1982.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Deng Xiaoping, Selected Works, pp. 375–6.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ibid., p. 376.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ibid., p. 378 (my italics).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Amnesty International, China Briefing ( London: Amnesty International Publications, 1984 ) p. 7.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ibid., p. 7 (my italics).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ibid., p. 6.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ibid., p. 6.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Deng Xiaoping, Selected Works pp. 88–9.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ibid., p. 89.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ibid., p. 89.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    For further details, see Amnesty International, China Briefing p. 7.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Parris Chang, `Chinese Politics, Deng’s Turbulent Quest’, Problems of Communism (January-February, 1981), p. 16.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of our Party, 1949–1981: Authoritative Assessment of Mao Zedong, The Cultural Revolution, Achievements of the People’s Republic (Beijing: Foreign Languages Press, 1981). The draft of this document was under the direct supervision of Deng Xiaoping.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Ibid., pp. 46, 56.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ibid., p. 72.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ibid., p. 21.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sun Xiacun, ‘Seeking the Truth from Facts’, China Reconstructs, XXX: 11 (1981), p. 30.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Renmin Ribao (People’s Daily), 10 October 1981.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ye Jianying, (former) Chairman of the Standing Committee of the NPC, speech on the occasion of the 32nd anniversary of the People’s Republic of China, quoted in South China Morning Post 2 October 1981 (my italics).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Richard Pascoe, ‘Ex Nationalists Get Top Posts’, South China Morning Post, 15 December 1981.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Speech by Kuomintang Premier Sun Yunsuan, 11th Sino-American Conference on Mainland China, Taipei, 10 June 1982.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Deng Xiaoping, Selected Works p. 202.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Michel Chossudovsky 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michel Chossudovsky
    • 1
  1. 1.AylmerCanada

Personalised recommendations