Barbarism and Criminality
Regulations concerning the activities of the Einsatzgruppen of the SS and SD, which enabled these murder squads to operate with relative freedom within the areas controlled by the army groups under the direct command of Reinhard Heydrich.
The curtailment of military jurisdiction (Die Einschränkung der Kriegsgerichtsbarkeit), which stipulated that guerrillas, and civilians suspected of assisting them, were to be shot by the army, and that in case no guilty party could be found, collective measures were to be taken against the civilian population in the area.
The Commissar Order, which called for the shooting of any Red Army political commissar captured by the troops.
The ‘Guidelines for the Conduct of the Troops in Russia’, which ordered ruthless measures against ‘Bolshevik agitators, guerrillas, saboteurs and Jews’ and called for the complete elimination of any active or passive resistance.1
KeywordsCivilian Population Russian Woman Russian POWs German Army German Soldier
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Notes and References
- 5.A. Streim, Die Behandlung sowjetischer Kriegsgefangener im ‘Fall Barbarossa’ (Heidelberg, 1981) pp. 246–7 Mason, ‘Women in Germany’Google Scholar
- A. Rosas, The Legal Status of Prisoners of War (Helsinki, 1976) pp. 69–80Google Scholar
- W. Anders, Hitler’s Defeat in Russia (Chicago, 1953) pp. 168–72Google Scholar
- A. Dallin, German Rule in Russia 2nd edn (London, 1981) pp. 68–70, 409–27, 533–52Google Scholar
- G. H. Davis, ‘Prisoners of War in Twentieth-Century War Economies’, JCH, XII (1977) 623–34.Google Scholar
- 113.L. Goure, The Siege of Leningrad (Stanford, 1962) p. 141Google Scholar
- H. E. Salisbury, The Siege of Leningrad (London, 1969) p. 331Google Scholar
- M. Walzer, Just and Unjust Wars, 3rd edn (Harmondsworth: Middlesex, 1980) pp. 165–70Google Scholar
- G. Best, Humanity in Warfare (London, 1980) pp. 224–44Google Scholar
- Y. Dinstein, ‘Just and Unjust War’, Zmanim, I (in the Hebrew language, 1980).Google Scholar