Iran pp 58-79 | Cite as

An Assessment of Agricultural Development Policies in Iran

  • Haleh Afshar


After almost three decades of development planning Iran’s industrial base remains fragile and the country has lost its earlier self-sufficiency in agriculture. This is largely because of a commitment to dualistic development policies which neglected the agrarian sector and which have resulted in increased economic dependency and in a high urban standard of living which the country cannot afford to maintain.1


Foreign Capital Land Reform Iranian Government Dynamic Sector Agricultural Investment 
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  1. 1.
    For a detailed analysis of dual resource depletion in Iran see M. A. Katouzian, ‘Oil Versus Agriculture: A Case of Dual Resource Depletion in Iran’, Journal of Peasant Studies, vol. 5, no. 3, April 1978, pp. 347–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. Amuzegar and M. A. Fekrat, Iran: Economic Development under Dualistic Conditions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971) p. 147.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
  4. 4.
    Ibid, p. 154.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ibid, p. 156.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ibid, p. 9.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. Amuzegar, ‘Chareyi barayeh halleh messaeleh eqtesadi Iran’ (a solution for Iran’s economic problems) Tahqiqatch Eqtesadi nos 21 and 22 (Spring and Summer 1349) (1970) pp. 10–11.Google Scholar
  8. 11.
    G. B. Baldwin, Planning and Development in Iran (Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1967) p. 82.Google Scholar
  9. 12.
    Ibid p. 83.Google Scholar
  10. 13.
    See H. Afshar, Rural Co-operatives in Iran, mimeo (Bradford University, 1980).Google Scholar
  11. 17.
    F. Halliday, Iran Dictatorship and Development (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1979) p. 130.Google Scholar
  12. 21.
    D. R. Denman, ‘Land Reforms of Shah and People’ in G. Lenczouski (ed.) Iran under the Pahlavis (Stanford, California: Hoover Institution Press, 1978) p. 28.Google Scholar
  13. 27.
    H. Oshima, Income Distribution Mission Working Paper, no. II, Employment and Income Policies in Iran, World Employment Programme (Geneva: International Labour Office, 1973).Google Scholar
  14. 28.
    F. Mehran, ‘Income Distribution in Iran, Statistics of Inequality’ Income Distribution Working Paper (Geneva: ILO, 1975) p. 21.Google Scholar
  15. 30.
    Quoted by H. Saedlou, Massaeleh Keshavarzi Iran (Tehran: Entesharateh Raisaq, Chapkhaneh Mihan, 1357, 1979) p. 116.Google Scholar
  16. 32.
    J. Safinejad, Boneh (Entesharateh Tous, Chapeh Efsat Heidars, Tehran 2535, 1977), introduction p. 34.Google Scholar
  17. 33.
    Ibid, p. 5.Google Scholar
  18. 34.
    For example 43 000–45 000 rials per annum, ibid, p. 411.Google Scholar
  19. 37.
    ‘International Monetary Fund Staff Report on Iran’, January 1975, p. 4.; quoted by R. Graham, Iran: The Illusion of Power (London: Croom Helm, 1978) p. 117.Google Scholar
  20. 38.
  21. 46.
    Layeheh Qanuni Eslaheh Qanoun Nahveh Vagozari va Ehyayeh Arazi (Shorayeh Enqelab, 11 December 1958) Bandeh Jim (1979).Google Scholar

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© Haleh Afshar 1985

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  • Haleh Afshar

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