Introduction: The African Condition

  • Timothy M. Shaw


‘The continent itself seems to be well endowed with resources but a disproportionate number of people in the population of the continent is undernourished and underprivileged.


Political Economy African Condition Political Independence Bretton Wood System World Capitalist System 
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Notes and References

  1. 2.
    Adebayo Adedeji, ‘Africa: The Crisis of Development and the Challenge of a New Economic Order, Address to the Fourth Meeting of the Conference of Ministers and Thirteenth Session of the ECA, Kinshasa, February–March 1977’ (Addis Ababa: ECA, 1977) pp. 8 and 10.Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    See Richard A. Higgott, ‘From Modernisation Theory to Public Policy: Continuity and Change in the Political Science of Political Development’, Studies in Comparative International Development 15(4), Winter 1980, pp. 26–58; andCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bjorn Beckman ‘Political Science and Political Economy’, in Yolamu Barongo (ed.), Political Science in Africa: A Critical Review (London: Zed, 1983) pp. 101–111.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Contrast, for instance, James S. Coleman, ‘The Politics of sub-Saharan Africa’; andGoogle Scholar
  5. ‘Conclusion: The Political Systems of the Developing Areas’, in Gabriel A. Almond & James S. Coleman, The Politics of Developing Areas (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1960) pp. 247–368 and 532–76 withGoogle Scholar
  6. Samir Amin, Neo-colonialism in West Africa (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1973); andGoogle Scholar
  7. Accumulation on a World Scale: A Critique of the Theory Of Underdevelopment (New York: Monthly Review, 1974).Google Scholar
  8. 5.
    For one comparison of these documents and debates over them see Timothy M. Shaw, ‘Debates About Africa’s Future: The Brandt, World Bank, and Lagos Plan blueprints’, Third World Quarterly 5(2), April 1983, pp. 330–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 6.
    Adedeji, ‘Africa’ p. 19. For more on a new pedagogy as well as a programme for Africa see Albert Trevoedjre, ‘Africa Towards the Year 2000: Final Report on the Joint OAU/ECA Symposium on the Future Development of Africa’, Appendix C, in Timothy M. Shaw (ed.), Alternative Futures for Africa (Boulder: Westview, 1982) pp. 329–40; andGoogle Scholar
  10. OAU, What Kind of Africa by the Year 2000? Final Report on the Monrovia Symposium (Geneva: International Institute for Labour Studies for OAU, 1979).Google Scholar
  11. 7.
    For an analogous attempt to do this in the field of African international relations see Timothy M. Shaw, ‘Introduction: Towards a Political Economy of African Foreign Policy’, in,Timothy M. Shaw & Olajide Aluko (eds), The Political Economy of African Foreign Policy: Comparative Analyses (Aldershot: Gower, and New York: St ‘Martin’s, 1984) pp. 1–24; andGoogle Scholar
  12. Towards an International Political Economy for the 1980s: From Dependence to (inter) Dependence (Halifax: Centre for Foreign Policy Studies, 1983).Google Scholar
  13. 8.
    Issa G. Shivji, ‘The State in the Dominated Social Formations of Africa: Some Theoretical Issues’, International Social Sciences Journal 32(4), 1980, p. 740. See alsoGoogle Scholar
  14. Peter Waterman, ‘On Radicalism in African Studies’, in Peter C. W. Gutkind & Peter Waterman (eds), African Social Studies: A Radical Reader (London: Heinemann, 1977) pp. 1–17.Google Scholar
  15. 9.
    For preliminary attempts to do this see Timothy M. Shaw, ‘Class, Country and Corporation: Africa in the Capitalist World System’, in Donald I. Ray et al. (eds), Into the1980s: Proceedings of the 11th Annual Conference of the Canadian Association of African Studies, Volume 2 (Vancouver: Tantalus, 1981) pp. 19–37; andGoogle Scholar
  16. ‘Africa in the World System: Towards More Uneven Development?’, in Timothy M. Shaw & ‘Sola Ojo (eds), Africa and the International Political System (Washington: University Press of America, 1982) pp. 104–36.Google Scholar
  17. 10.
    Aidan Foster-Carter, ‘Neo-Marxist Approaches to Development and Underdevelopment’, in Emmanuelde Kadt & Gavin Williams (eds), Sociology and Development (London: Tavistock, 1974) p. 87. See alsoGoogle Scholar
  18. Chris Allen & Gavin Williams (eds), Sub-Saharan Africa (New York: Monthly Review, 1983); andGoogle Scholar
  19. Bernard Magubane & Bernard Nzongola-Ntalaja (eds), Proletarianisation and Class Struggle in Africa (San Francisco: Contemporary Marxism, 1983. Number 6).Google Scholar
  20. 11.
    Henrik Secher Marcussen & Jens Erik Torp, Internationalisation of Capital: Prospects for the Third World. A Re-examination of Dependency Theory (London: Zed, 1982) p. 159.Google Scholar
  21. 12.
    For critiques of these see Timothy M. Shaw, ‘The Political Economy of African International Relations’, Issue 5(4), Winter 1975, pp. 29–38; and, withGoogle Scholar
  22. Malcolm J. Grieve, ‘Dependence or Development: A Review Article on International and Internal Inequalities in Africa’, Development and Change 8(3), July 1977, pp. 377–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 14.
    For an attempt to examine Africa’s international relations over several decades see Timothy M. Shaw, ‘The Actors in African International Politics’, in Timothy M. Shaw & Kenneth A. Heard (eds), The Politics of Africa: Dependence and Development (London: Longman, 1979) pp. 357–96.Google Scholar
  24. 15.
    Nigel Harris, Of Bread and Guns: The World Economy in Crisis (Harmondsworth: Pelican, 1983) p. 18.Google Scholar
  25. 16.
    See Timothy M. Shaw, ‘Non-Aligned States and the New International Economic Order’, in Herb Addo (ed.), Transforming the World Economy? Critical Essays on the NIEO (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1984).Google Scholar
  26. 17.
    Jack N. Barkenbus, ‘Slowed Economic Growth and Third World Welfare’, in Dennis Clark Pirages (ed.), The Sustainable Society (New York: Praeger, 1977) pp. 317 and 315.Google Scholar
  27. 18.
    Basil Davidson, Africa in Modern History: The Search for a New Society (Harmondsworth: Pelican, 1978) p. 131.Google Scholar
  28. 19.
    For an overview of this scenario see Timothy M. Shaw, ‘The Future of the Great Powers in Africa: Towards a Political Economy in Intervention’, Conference on the Great Powers and Africa, University of Ife, June 1983.Google Scholar
  29. 20.
    Philippe Lemaitre, ‘Who Will Rule Africa by the Year 2000?’, in Helen Kitchen (ed.), Africa: From Mystery to Maze (Lexington: Lexington, 1976. Critical Choices for Americans, Volume 11) p. 270.Google Scholar
  30. 21.
    I. William Zartman, ‘Africa’, in James N. Rosenau et al., World Politics: An Introduction (New York: Free Press, 1976) p. 593.Google Scholar
  31. 22.
    On corporatism on the continent see Timothy M. Shaw, ‘Beyond Neocolonialism: Varieties of Corporatism in Africa’, Journal of Modern African Studies 20(2), June 1982, pp. 239–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 25.
    See Timothy M. Shaw, ‘OAU: The Forgotten Economic Debate’, West Africa 3375, 12 April 1982, pp. 983–4; andGoogle Scholar
  33. ‘Agenda for Action: Valuable Criticism’, West Africa, 3377, 26 April 1982, pp. 1131–3. See also papers presented at, ‘Lagos Plan of Action Workshop’, Centre for African Studies, Dalhousie University, October 1983.Google Scholar
  34. 30.
    Steven Langdon & Lynn K. Mytelka, ‘Africa in the Changing World Economy’, in Colin Legum et al., Africa in the 1980s: A Continent in Crisis (New York: McGraw-Hill for Council on Foreign Relations 1980s Project, 1979) p. 211.Google Scholar
  35. 31.
    For an earlier attempt to relate projections to policy and psychology see Timothy M. Shaw, ‘Introduction: The Political Economy in Africa’s Futures’, in Shaw (ed.), Alternative Futures for Africa pp. 1–16. See also Timothy M. Shaw & Olajide Aluko (eds), Africa Projected: From Recession to Renaissance by the Year 2000? (London: Macmillan, 1984).Google Scholar
  36. 32.
    John Saul, The State and Revolution in Eastern Africa (New York: Monthly Review, 1979) pp. 384–5.Google Scholar
  37. 33.
    Immanuel Wallerstein, The Capitalist World-Economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979) p. 67.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Timothy M. Shaw 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Timothy M. Shaw
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for African StudiesCanada
  2. 2.Dalhousie UniversityCanada

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