Much of the literature on the analysis of Japanese management systems in comparison with US or European management practices places stress on such characteristics as lifetime employment, promotion and wage increase by length of service, group decision with ‘bottom-up’ approach, ambiguous responsibility of individuals and company-wide unions. These analyses are more concerned with operational decisions, motivation and leadership (Vogel, 1979; Pascale and Athos, 1981; Ouchi, 1981).


Japanese Management Liberal Democratic Party Capability Structure Socialist Party Japanese Worker 
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Copyright information

© Toyohiro Kono 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Toyohiro Kono
    • 1
  1. 1.Gakushuin UniversityTokyoJapan

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