The problems of extrapolating laboratory data to man in teratology

  • R. Jelínek


Everybody knows what extrapolation is. However, it is useful from time to time to refresh one’s mind by reading a definition. ‘Extrapolation’ according to The Concise Oxford English Dictionary ‘is the calculation from known terms of a series of other terms which lie outside the range of the known terms’. Any extrapolation, therefore, should start with an inventory of the known terms. It may be relatively easy in exact sciences and wherever a higher degree of knowledge, that is natural law or at least theory, has been achieved. Although much has been written about extrapolation in teratology, no attempt has been made to argue on the basis offered by theory. Teratology remained for a long time an empirical branch of science working, in the field of extrapolation, with simple analogies. Instead of the usual compiling of dispersed data, this contribution aims to present a theoretical account of our chance to make extrapolations in teratology consequent upon the theory of morphogenetic systems. Before doing this, it is necessary to elucidate several terms and viewpoints.


Chick Embryo Sensitive Period Palatal Shelf Actual Genotype Malformed Foetus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. BASS, R., BECK, F., MERKER, H.-J., NEUBERT, D. & RANDHAHN, B. (eds) (1970). Metabolic Pathways in Mammalian Embryos during Organogenesis and Its Modification by Drugs, pp. 633, Berlin: Freie Universität.Google Scholar
  2. BORÉUS, L.D. (ed.) (1973). Fetal Pharmacology, pp. 487, New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  3. BRENT, R.L. (1982). The importance and magnitude of the prevention of congenital malformations. In Proceedings, World Conference on Prevention des anomalies congénitales physiques et mentales, Strassbourg.Google Scholar
  4. ELWOOD, J.M. & ELWOOD, J.H. (1980). Epidemiology of Anencephalus and Spina Bifida. Oxford: Oxford University Press — cited by Warkany.Google Scholar
  5. EPA (1982). Assessment of Risks to Human Reproduction and to Development of the Human Conceptus from Exposure to Environmental Substances. Proceedings of EPA Sponsored Conferences, Atlanta and St Louis 1980, pp. 158, Oak Ridge Nat. Laboratory.Google Scholar
  6. GASSER, D.L., MELE, L., LEES, D.D. & GOLDMAN, A.S. (1981). Genes in mice that affect susceptibility to cortisone-induced cleft palate are closely linked to Ir genes on chromosomes 2 and 17. Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 78, 3147–3150.Google Scholar
  7. GRANT, L.O. (1976). Research strategies for behavioural teratology. Environ. Hlth. Perspect., 18, 85–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. HERTIG, A.T. (1967). The overall problem in man. In Comparative Aspects of Reproductive Failure. Benirschke, K. (ed.) pp. 11–41. New York: Springer Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. JELÍNEK, R. (1982). An Outline of the Theory of Morphogenetic Systems. Prague: Philosophical Faculty Charles University. Dissertation (in Czech).Google Scholar
  10. JELÍNEK, R., DOSTÁL, M. & PETERKA, M. (1983a). Cleft Lip and Palate in the Picture of Experiment, pp. 203, Prague: Univerzita Karlova (in Czech).Google Scholar
  11. JELÍNEK, R., PAVLÍK, A. & PETERKA, M. (1983b). Glucocorticoid receptor-mediated teratogenesis in the chick embryo. Teratogenesis, Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, 3, 1–7.Google Scholar
  12. JELÍNEK, R. & RYCHTER, Z., (1980). Morphogenetic systems and screening for embryotoxicity. Arch. Toxicol., Suppl., 4, 267–273.Google Scholar
  13. JELINEK, R., RYCHTER, Z. & PETERKA, M. (1979). US Patent No. 4, 153, 676.Google Scholar
  14. JUCHAU, M.R. (ed.) (1981). The Biochemical Basis of Chemical Teratogenesis, pp. 272, New York/ Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  15. KUČERA, J. (1973). Inborn defects caused by drugs (in Czech). CPediat., 28, 664–666.Google Scholar
  16. KUČERA, J. (1977). Relation between population genetics and population teratology. In Medical Genetics. Szabó, G. & Papp, Z. (eds). pp 449–473, Amsterdam/Oxford: Excerpta Medica.Google Scholar
  17. KUČERA, J. (1979). Technical civilization and congenital malformation rate in Czechoslovakia — no association. In Evaluation of Embryotoxicity, Mutagenicity and Carcinogenicity in New Drugs. Benešová, O., Rychter, Z. & Jelínek, R. (eds). pp. 179–186, Prague: Univerzita Karlova.Google Scholar
  18. LEVY, G. (1981). Pharmacokinetics of fetal and neonatal exposure to drugs. J. Obstet. Gynecol., 58 (Suppl.), 92–16.2.Google Scholar
  19. MIRKIN, B.L. (ed.) (1976). Perinatal Pharmacology and Therapeutics, pp. 455, New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  20. MURPHY, S.D. (1979). Some concepts in toxicology. Environ. Hlth. Perspect., 32, 261–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. NEUBERT, D., MERKER, H.-J., NAU, H. & LANGMAN, J. (eds) (1978). Role of Pharmacokinetics in Prenatal and Perinatal Toxicology, pp. 647, Stuttgart: Thieme.Google Scholar
  22. NISHIMURA, H. (1970). Incidence of malformations in abortions. In Congenital Malformations. Fraser, F.C. & McKusick, V.A. (eds). pp. 275–283, Amsterdam/New York: Excerpta Medica.Google Scholar
  23. RALL, D.P. (1979). Relevance of animal experiments to humans. Environ. Hlth. Perspect., 32, 297–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. RODIER, P.M. (1976). Critical periods for behavioural anomalies in mice. Environ. Hlth. Perspect., 18, 79–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. RODIER, P.M. (1978). Behavioural teratology. In Handbook of Teratology, Wilson, J.G. & Fraser, F.C. (eds). pp. 397–428, New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  26. RYCHTER, Z. (1979). Properties of morphogenetic systems. In Evaluation of Embryotoxicity, Mutagenicity and Carcinogenicity Risks in New Drugs. Benšová O., Rychter, Z. & Jelínek, R. (eds). pp. 25–34, Prague: Univerzita Karlova.Google Scholar
  27. RYCHTER, Z. & JELÍNEK, R. (1978). Foundations of Experi-mental Teratology, pp. 159, Prague: Avicenum (in Czech).Google Scholar
  28. SPYKER, J.M. (1975). Behavioral teratology and toxicology. In Environmental Science Research, Vol. 5: Behavioral Toxicology. Weiss, B. & Laties, V.G. (eds). pp. 311–334, New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  29. VOUK, V.B. & SHEEHAN, P.J. (eds) (1983). Methods for Assessing the Effects of Chemicals on Reproductive Functions, pp. 541, (SCOPE 20), Chichester/New York: Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  30. WADDELL, W.J. & MARLOWE, G.C. (1976). Disposition of drugs in the fetus. In Perinatal Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Mirkin, B.L. (ed.) pp. 119–268, New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  31. WADDELL, W.J. & MARLOWE, G.C. (1981). Biochemical regulation of the accessibility of teratogens to the developing embryo. In The Biochemical Basis of Chemical Teratogenesis. Juchau, M.R. (ed.) pp. 1–62, Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  32. WARKANY, J. (1981). Prevention of congenital malformations. Teratology, 23, 175–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. WILSON, J.G. (1959), Experimental studies on congenital malformations. J. Chronic. Dis., 10, 111–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. WILSON J.G. (1973). Mechanisms of teratogenesis. Am. J. Anat. 136, 129–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. WILSON J.G. (1975). Reproduction and teratogenesis: current methods and suggested improvements. J. Ass. Off. Anal. Chem., 58, 657–667.Google Scholar
  36. WILSON, J.G. (1977). Current status of teratology (General principles and mechanisms derived from animal studies. In Handbook of Teratology, Vol. 1: General Principles and Etiology. Wilson, J.G. & Fraser, F.C. (eds). pp. 47–74, New York/London: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  37. WILSON, J.G. (1979). The evolution of teratological testing. Teratology, 20, 205–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Macmillan Publishers Limited 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Jelínek
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Experimental MedicineCzechoslovak Academy of SciencesPragueCzechoslovakia

Personalised recommendations