Advertisement

Non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic inhibitory mechanisms

  • A. Bowman

Abstract

Many smooth muscles possess an autonomic innervation that cannot be classified as cholinergic or adrenergic — the nerves are often termed non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (nanc). One of the first clues to their existence came from the work of Langley & Anderson (1895) who described atropine-resistant responses to stimulation of the sacral parasympathetic outflow. In recent years the number of organs found to possess an autonomic nanc innervation, usually in addition to the more familiar adrenergic and/or cholinergic innervation, has increased greatly, as has the number of suggested putative transmitters, which include amino acids, amines and a range of polypeptides, as well as purine nucleotides. To date, no nanc transmitter has been identified with certainty, but it has become clear that we are dealing not with a single extra transmitter substance, but with a variety of different ones in different organs and species. Some may act as cotransmitters, supporting or modulating the function of the main transmitter.

Keywords

Nerve Stimulation Sodium Nitroprusside Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide Guanylate Cyclase Field Stimulation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. AMBACHE, N., KILLICK, S.W. & ZAR, M.A. (1975). Extraction from ox retractor penis of an inhibitory substance which mimics its atropine-resistant neurogenic relaxation. Br. J. Pharmac., 54, 409–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. BOULLIN, D.J. (1980). Cerebral vasospasm, pp. 120–124. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  3. BOWMAN, ANNE & DRUMMOND, A.H. (1984). Cyclic GMP mediates neurogenic relaxation in the bovine retractor penis muscle. Br. J. Pharmac., 81, 665–674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. BOWMAN, ANNE & GILLESPIE, J.S. (1981a). An erythrocyte-associated antagonist of inhibitory mechanisms in the bovine retractor penis muscle. Br. J. Pharmac., 74, 181–182P.Google Scholar
  5. BOWMAN, ANNE & GILLESPIE, J.S. (1981b). Differential blockade of non-adrenergic inhibitory mechanisms in bovine retractor penis and guinea pig taenia caeci. J. Physiol., 317, 92–93P.Google Scholar
  6. BOWMAN, ANNE & GILLESPIE, J.S. (1982). Block of some non-adrenergic inhibitory responses of smooth muscle by a substance from haemolysed erythrocytes. J. Physiol., 328, 11–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. BOWMAN, ANNE & GILLESPIE, J.S. (1983). Neurogenic vasodilatation in isolated bovine and canine penile arteries. J. Physiol., 341, 603–616.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. BOWMAN, ANNE, GILLESPIE, J.S. & McGRATH, J.C. (1983). Hypoxia blocks the non-adrenergic non-cholinergic inhibitory nerves in the bovine retractor penis muscle. Br. J. Pharmac., 79, 226P.Google Scholar
  9. BOWMAN, ANNE, GILLESPIE, J.S. & MARTIN, W. (1979). The inhibitory material in extracts from the bovine retractor penis muscle is not an adenine nucleotide. Br. J. Pharmac., 67, 327–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. BOWMAN, ANNE, GILLESPIE, J.S. & MARTIN, W. (1981). Actions on the cardiovascular system of an inhibitory material extracted from the bovine retractor penis. Br. J. Pharmac., 72, 365–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. BOWMAN, ANNE, GILLESPIE, J.S. & POLLOCK, D. (1982). Oxyhaemoglobin blocks non-adrenergic non-cholinergic inhibition in the bovine retractor penis muscle. Eur. J. Pharmac., 85, 221–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. BOWMAN, ANNE & McGRATH, J.C. (1982). The effects of hyperoxia and hypoxia on the responses of smooth muscle to nerve stimulation and to drugs. Br. J. Pharmac., 77, 474P.Google Scholar
  13. COCKS, T.M. & ANGUS, J.A. (1983). Endothelium-dependent relaxation of coronary arteries by noradrenaline and serotonin. Nature, 305, 627–630.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. DORR, L.D. & BRODY, M.J. (1967). Hemodynamic mechanisms of erection in the canine penis. Am. J. Physiol., 213, 1526–1531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. ECHLIN, F. (1971). Experimental vasospasm, acute and chronic, due to blood in the subarachnoid space. J. Neurosurg., 35, 646–656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. FURCHGOTT, R.F. (1981). The requirement for endothelial cells in the relaxation of arteries by acetylcholine and some other vasodilators. Trends Pharmac. Sci., 2, 173–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. FURCHGOTT, R.F. & ZAWADZKI, J.V. (1980). The obligatory role of endothelial cells in the relaxation of arterial smooth muscle by acetylcholine. Nature, 288, 373–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. GILLESPIE, J.S. (1972). The rat anococcygeus muscle and its response to nerve stimulation and to some drugs. Br. J. Pharmac., 45, 404–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. GILLESPIE, J.S. & MARTIN, W. (1978). A smooth muscle inhibitory material extracted from the bovine retractor penis and rat anococcygeus muscles. J. Physiol., 280, 45–46P.Google Scholar
  20. GILLESPIE, J.S. & MARTIN, W. (1980). A smooth muscle inhibitory material from the bovine retractor penis and rat anococcygeus muscles. J. Physiol., 309, 55–64.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. JENKINSON, D.H. (1981). Peripheral actions of apamin. Trends pharmac. Sci., 2, 318–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. KLINGE, E. & SJÖSTRAND, N.O. (1974). Contraction and relaxation of the retractor penis muscle and the penile artery of the bull.Acta phys. scand. suppl., 420, 1–88.Google Scholar
  23. LANGLEY, J.N. & ANDERSON, H.K. (1895). The innervation of the pelvic and adjoining viscera. J. Physiol., 19, 71–139.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. LUDUENA, F.P. & GRIGAS, E.O. (1966). Pharmacological study of autonomic innervation of dog retractor penis. Am. J. Physiol., 210, 435–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. MITTAL, C.K., ARNOLD, W.P. & MURAD, F. (1978). Characterization of protein inhibitors or guanylate cyclase activation from rat heart and bovine lung. J. biol. Chem., 253, 1266–1271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. OSAKA, K. (1977). Prolonged vasospasm produced by the breakdown products of erythrocytes. J. Neurosurg., 47, 403–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. POLAK, J.M., GU, J., MINA, S. & BLOOM, S.R. (1981). VlPergic nerves in the penis. Lancet, ii, 217–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. RAPOPORT, R.M. & MURAD, F. (1983). Agonist-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in rat thoracic aorta may be mediated through cGMP. Circulation Res., 52, 352–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. TANISHIMA, T. (1980). Cerebral vasospasm. Contractile activity of hemoglobin in isolated canine basilar arteries. J. Neurosurg., 53, 787–793.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Macmillan Publishers Limited 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Bowman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PharmacologyUniversity of GlasgowScotlandUK

Personalised recommendations