The absolute monarchs put down the feudal barons, unified countries through war and marriage, and created a civil service through which the unified countries could be governed. They also disposed of the parliaments that had given some protection to the individual citizens, and had first been instituted as an aid to taxation and to give the king some measure of popular support. For several centuries Europe was dominated by despots who ran countries, through cumbrous bureaucracies and armies, as if they were their personal property.
KeywordsEighteenth Century Industrial Revolution East India Company British East India Company Land Revenue
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