The constantly increasing industrial demand for axisymmetrical cylindrical and spherical components, or elements of them — for use in chemical, nuclear, electricity-generating and fluid-transmitting plant — has concentrated the attention of designers on this particular area of activity. The progressive, world-wide scarcity of materials, combined with their consequently higher cost, makes it increasingly less attractive to confine design to the customary elastic regime only and calls for a greater use of the material which the elasto-plastic approach does offer. We shall therefore concentrate on this particular aspect of analysis although, of course, where appropriate, elements of purely elastic and plastic states will be examined.
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