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Personality

  • P. Kline
Chapter
Part of the Psychology for Professional Groups book series

Abstract

Personality tests can be divided into tests of temperament and mood. Temperament tests measure how we do what we do, and temperamental traits are usually thought of as enduring and stable, such as dominance or anxiety. Dynamic traits are concerned with motives: for instance, why we do what we do, and include drives such as sexuality or pugnacity. Moods refer to those fluctuating states that we all experience in our lives: anger, fatigue or fear. Let us now look at each of these three categories in turn, and discuss how the psychologist attempts to measure them.

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References

  1. Allport, G.W. (1938) Personality: Psychological interpretation. New York: Chilton.Google Scholar
  2. Buros, O.K. (1972) VII Mental Measurements Year Book. New Jersey: Gryphon Press.Google Scholar
  3. Cattell, R.B. and Kline, P. (1977) The Scientific Analysis of Personality and Motivation. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  4. Freud, S. (1933) New Introductory Lectures. London: Hogarth Press & Institute of Psychoanalysis.Google Scholar
  5. Freud, S. (1940) An Outline of Psychoanalysis. London: Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
  6. Kline, P. (1972) Fact and Fantasy in Freudian Theory. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  7. Kline, P. (1979) Psychometrics and Psychology. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
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  9. McDougall, W. (1932) The Energies of Man. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  10. Mischel, M. (1977) On the future of personality measurement. American Psychology, 32, 246–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Murray, H.A. (1938) Explorations in Personality. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Sheldon, W.H. and Stevens, S.S. (1942) The Varieties of Temperament. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar

Annotated reading

  1. Cronbach, L. (1976) Essentials of Psychological Testing. Chicago: Harper & Row. A clear comprehensive discussion of psychological testing and tests.Google Scholar
  2. Cattell, R.B. and Kline, P. (1977) The Scientific Analysis of Personality and Motivation. London: Academic Press. A full account of the factor analysis of personality, in which the results are related to clinical theories.Google Scholar
  3. Freud, S. (1978) New Introductory Lectures. Harmondsworth: Penguin. A brilliantly told account of Freudian theory by the Master himself.Google Scholar
  4. Hall, G.S. and Lindzey, G. (1973) Theories of Personality. New York: Wiley. A good summary of a variety of theories of personality.Google Scholar
  5. Vernon, P.E. (1979) Intelligence, Heredity and Environment. San Francisco: Freeman. Another useful book on this topic.Google Scholar

References

  1. Festinger, L. (1962) Cognitive dissonance. Scientific American, October.Google Scholar
  2. Maccoby, E. and Jacklin, C. (1974) The Psychology of Sex Differences. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Maslow, A.H. (1943) A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Rotter, J. (1954) Social Learning and Clinical Psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Thomas, A., Chess, S. and Birch, H. (1970) The origin of personality. Scientific American, August.Google Scholar
  6. Weiner, B. (1979) A theory of motivation for some classroom experience. Journal of Educational Psychology, 71, 3–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Additional reading

  1. Thomas, A. and Chess, S. (1977) Temperament and Development. New York: Brunner-Mazel. The most recent publication on the work of Thomas, Chess and Birch.Google Scholar
  2. Maslow, A.H. (1970) Motivation and Personality (2nd edn). New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  3. Maslow, A.H. (1968) Towards a Psychology of Being (2nd edn). New York: Van Nostrand. Maslow has produced a number of books, all interesting and highly readable, on his theories of personality and motivation. The reader might like to look initially at either of these two.Google Scholar
  4. Warren, N. and Jahoda, M. (1973) Attitudes (2nd edn). Harmondsworth: Penguin. Gives a good general survey of the field of attitudes. Theories on locus of control and on attribution can be approached through Weiner’s recent paper, details of which appear in the references.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The British Psychological Society 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Kline

There are no affiliations available

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