Politics and industrial society III: the spectre of revolution
Liberalism, which set out as a creed of revolt against absolutism, subsequently became the official creed of developed industrial societies. Its two main ideological strands, national liberalism and social democracy, provide the general stock of ideas from which most parties in the political systems of the West draw inspiration. The utopian element in liberalism remains but it is now overshadowed by the brooding pessimism of so much modern liberal thought, as liberal and social democratic thinkers contemplate the condition and prospects of industrial society.
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