It is necessary to begin with an overview. Russian studies of Japan grew slowly and late, as a specialisation. In Russia as in other countries ‘Oriental Studies’ has in the past referred primarily to work on the ‘classical’ subjects of language and literature; and to West Asia (the ‘Near’ and ‘Middle’ East, so-called from a Europocentric standpoint). Only secondly or by implication did the term Orientalist, in earlier times, seem to indicate also the geographer and the historian; and only in modern times, from late in the last century, has it especially included in its coverage the ‘Far’ East and in its functions those of the political scientist, economist and sociologist. The ‘residual’ treatment also tends still to include Africa as well as Asia under the same heading; it is interesting that in Moscow as well as London the institutional appellation and the titles of works sometimes combine ‘African and Oriental’ together.
KeywordsEurope Military Position Fishing Monopoly
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