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In this chapter we discuss some of the principles of plan implementation and the practical issues to which they give rise. The present section begins by outlining the basic concepts required for the analysis, and then comments on the main instruments and forms of economic control which are available. Two caveats are in order before we proceed. First, while much of what follows is based on our earlier examination of the Soviet Union, France and Hungary, it is convenient to develop certain points in a relatively general manner without worrying too much about the precise institutional details. However, we shall attempt to indicate the major implications of the analysis for the individual countries. Second, parts of the more formal treatment may give the impression that we regard plan implementation as a purely technical matter; but we should emphasise from the outset that this can never actually be the case. In any particular country the feasible and relevant economic instruments always depend on institutional and political considerations, but it is beyond the scope of this book to dwell on such issues, except briefly in Chapter 11.
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