Pan-Arab versus Local Nationalism I: al-Husri and the Egyptian Nationalists

  • Bassam Tibi


It has already been shown that Arab nationalism first emerged in Greater Syria, and that it was confined to that part of the Middle East in its early years. It originated among Syro-Lebanese intellectuals, who were primarily Christian, and who had been educated in European and American mission schools. For these nationalists, the Arab nation consisted exclusively of Arab ‘Asians’, a definition already implied in the title of a work by the early Arab nationalist Najib Azouri, La Réveil de la Nation Arabe dans l’Asie Turque.1 The first links between the ‘Asian’ Arab nationalists and Arab North Africa were established during the period of Muhammad ‘Ali’s conquest of Syria between 1831 and 1840,2 although they were disrupted by the intervention of the colonial powers, especially Britain.


Arab World Colonial Power National Party Wordly Ruler National Movement 
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  1. 1.
    Negib Azoury, La Réreil de la Nation Arabe dans l’Asie Turque (Paris, 1905).Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    See H. Dodwell, The Founder of Modern Egypt, A Study of Muhammad Ali (Cambridge, 1931) passim. and Chapter 4 above.Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    On the Urabi Revolt, see L. Rathmann, Neue Aspekte des Arabi-Aufstandes 1879 bis 1882 in Ägypten (Berlin, 1968)Google Scholar
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  5. also B. Tibi, ‘Zum Verhältnis von Militär und kolonialem Nationalismus am Beispiel der arabischen Länder’, Sozialistische Politik, 1(1969) No. 4, 4–19.Google Scholar
  6. see M. Rifaat, The Awakening of Modern Egypt (London, 1947) pp. 172 ff.Google Scholar
  7. On British colonial rule in Egypt see Theodore Rothstein, Die Engländer in Ägypten Ergänzungsheft zur Neuen Zeit No. 10 (Stuttgart, 1911)Google Scholar
  8. John Marlowe, Anglo-Egyptian Relations 1800–1953 (London, 1954) pp. 112 ff.Google Scholar
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  10. 8.
    Walther Braune, ‘Die Entwicklung des Nationalismus bei den Arabern’, in R. Hartmann (ed.), BASI (Leipzing, 1944) pp. 425–38Google Scholar
  11. 9.
    See N. Safran, Egypt in Search of a Political Community, an Analysis of the Intellectual and Political Evolution of Egypt, 1804–1952 (Cambridge, Mass., 1961) pp. 62 ff.Google Scholar
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  13. 30.
    See also E. I. J. Rosenthal, Islam in the Modern National State (Cambridge, 1965) p. 103, which presents the Muslim Brotherhood’s critique of all varieties of nationalism.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 32.
    One of the Free Officers has recorded details of these contacts: see Anwar El-Sadat, Revolt on the Nile (London, 1957).Google Scholar
  15. On the Free Officers, see Jean Ziegler, Politische Soziologie des neuen Afrika (Munich, 1966) pp. 216 ff. TheGoogle Scholar
  16. J. Heyworth-Dunne, Walther Braune, ‘Beiträge zur Geschichte des neuarabischen Schrifttums’, Mitteilungen des Seminars für orientalische Sprachen, xxxvi (1933) No. 2, 1117–40.Google Scholar
  17. On the Wafd Party see the monograph by Zaheer M. Quraishi, Liberal Nationalism in Egypt, The Rise and Fall of the Wafd Party (Delhi, 1967)Google Scholar
  18. Jacob M. Landau, Parliaments and Parties in Egypt (Tel Aviv, 1953) pp. 148 ff.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bassam Tibi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Political ScienceUniversity of GöttingenGermany

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