Reproductive Failure and Wastage
We are all well aware of imperfections and wastage in the human reproductive process such as the pregnancy which ends in a miscarriage or a stillbirth and that tragically embodied in the child who suffers a major deformity or permanent handicap. These distressing outcomes of pregnancy are reminders that human reproduction is fallible and that conception does not automatically result in the birth of a live and healthy infant. The causes of failure and the inefficiencies of the human reproductive process are discussed in this chapter, with special emphasis on those developmental errors which give rise to abnormalities of the newborn.
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