International trade expanded significantly and rapidly during the eighteenth century. Moreover, it changed in direction, composition, and structure. The slave trade and the triangular trade between Europe, Africa, and the Americas assumed particular importance; and the oriental trade underwent qualitative changes twice during the century. This international trade and the high profits derived from it made an important contribution to the process of capital accumulation in northwestern Europe, particularly England, and northeastern America; and the rapid growth of manufacturing exports significantly facilitated and furthered the development of industry and the Industrial Revolution. Trade and war were intimately—and reciprocally—related to each other and to the process of capital accumulation and economic development as a whole. These aspects of international trade in the eighteenth century may be examined in turn.
Eighteenth Century Foreign Trade Capital Accumulation Industrial Revolution Slave Trade
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