In all paediatric emergencies, rapid and accurate diagnosis and treatment are most essential for a successful outcome. By the time the child reaches the hospital ward, many valuable hours have passed since the onset of the illness and so rapid action is essential. After taking the history and an early institution of therapy, as many further details as possible in the history of the illness should be obtained from the parents; blood and other material for necessary investigations should be obtained early on so that laboratory help can be mobilised to assist with diagnosis and control of treatment.
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