• Valentine Herman
  • Juliet Lodge


Why have direct elections to the European Parliament? The answers to this question have raised anxiety among member governments of the European Community (EC) for it has been recognised that direct elections hold the key to the future of the EC. They have been seen as confirming and defining the existence, nature and political form of the Community — as resolving its ontological problems in favour of federalism. The elections would thus undermine any illusions that the Community was (and would remain) an apolitical, functionally specific international organisation, inspired by functionalist premises, and devoid of political import or implications for the exercise of power by the component member states’ governments.1


Member State National Parliament Democratic Legitimacy Legislative Power Direct Election 
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  1. 2.
    Directorate-General for Research and Documentation, Elections to the European Parliament by Direct Universal Suffrage (Luxembourg: European Parliament, 1977) p. 5.Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    Directorate-General for Parliamentary Documentation and Information, The Case for Elections to the European Parliament by Direct Universal Suffrage (Luxembourg: European Parliament, 1969).Google Scholar
  3. 5.
    For details see W. Clark, The Politics of the Common Market (Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1967) p. 81Google Scholar
  4. J. Lodge, ‘The Reform of the European Parliament’, Political Science, XXV (1973) 63–66.Google Scholar
  5. 7.
    Dr Hallstein (then President of the Commission) indicated as much in 1963. See M. Forsyth, The Parliament of the European Communities (London: PEP, 1964) p. 88.Google Scholar
  6. 8.
    K. von Lindeiner-Wildau, La Supranationalité en tant que Principe de Droit (Leiden: Sijthoff, 1970) pp. 137ff.Google Scholar
  7. 10.
    F. Cardis, Fédéralisme et Intégration Européenne (Lausanne: Centre de Recherches Européennes, 1964) pp. 42–56, 190–4, 225–31.Google Scholar
  8. 11.
    See D. Mitrany, The Functional Theory of Politics (London: Martin Robertson, 1975).Google Scholar
  9. 12.
    See M. Steed, ‘The European Parliament: The Significance of Direct Election’, Government and Opposition, VI (1971) 462–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 13.
    J. Lodge, ‘Loyalty and the EEC: The Limitations of the Functionalist Approach’, Political Studies, XXVI (1978) (forthcoming).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Valentine Herman and Juliet Lodge 1978

Authors and Affiliations

  • Valentine Herman
    • 1
  • Juliet Lodge
    • 2
  1. 1.Erasmus UniversityRotterdamNetherlands
  2. 2.University of HullUK

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