• T. C. White
  • J. H. Gardiner
  • B. C. Leighton


The foregoing chapters might give the reader the impression that normal occlusion was a sharply defined condition. It might seem that a standard pattern of tooth relation and dental arch relation existed and even a constancy in the relation of the dental bases to one another. This impression might be confirmed by the following definition of malocclusion:

A condition where there is a departure from the normal relation of the teeth to other teeth in the same arch and to teeth in the opposing arch.


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  1. 1.
    Sicher, H. (1957). Amer. J. Orthodont. 43: 679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Angel, E. H. (1907). Malocclussion of the Teeth, S. S. White, 7th Edition.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© T. C. White, J. H. Gardiner and B. C. Leighton 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. C. White
    • 1
    • 2
  • J. H. Gardiner
    • 3
  • B. C. Leighton
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.University of GlasgowUK
  2. 2.Glasgow Dental Hospital and SchoolUK
  3. 3.Orthodontic DepartmentUniversity of Sheffield Dental HospitalUK
  4. 4.University of LondonUK
  5. 5.Orthodontic DepartmentKing’s College Hospital Dental SchoolUK

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