Advertising and Promotion Overseas
The problem of measuring the effectiveness of advertising and other promotional methods is well known: nowhere is the problem greater than in foreign markets where legal controls on advertising, tastes and cultural attitudes may be different from those with which the exporter is familiar in his home market. This problem poses a substantial dilemma in some instances, namely whether to standardise advertising and promotional methods in all markets, at the risk of being saddled with an inappropriate promotional message in some; or whether to leave the decision to a representative in the local market, e.g. an agent to choose a method of advertising and promotion, with the exporter having little or no say on the matter. The problems this causes are most acute in the underdeveloped world, particularly where cultural and even religious pitfalls have to be guarded against; and also in the various Communist countries where the attitude to advertising varies from puritan disapproval to virtual acceptance. This chapter also reviews some of the conventional issues and subdivisions in advertising, e.g. as between consumer and industrial products, and considers to what extent these have to be amended in foreign markets.
KeywordsIncome Marketing Expense Monopoly
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