Environmental Effects of Transport Systems
Whilst the central issue in debates between the proponents of public and private transport in the early years of the rise of road transport was that of track costs, in recent years the emphasis has shifted. The prime driving force behind campaigns for the transfer of traffic from private to public transport, and from road to rail, in recent years has been the desire to improve the quality of the environment.1 In the case of track costs the difficulty has been to levy appropriate charges for the use of transport facilities; in the case of the environment, the trouble is that, in most instances, no charges at all are levied.2 Thus the individual or organisation taking the transport decision has no incentive at all, other than social conscience, to take into account the environmental consequences of his decisions (even if he is aware of them). In other words, the environmental consequences of transport systems are externalities arising from the processes of production and consumption, and their presence must immediately arouse suspicion of resource misallocation.
KeywordsZinc Petroleum Transportation Hydrocarbon Rubber
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