Forced convection heat transfer has now been considered in some detail. The energy exchange between a body and an essentially stagnant fluid surrounding it is another important example of convection. Fluid motion is due entirely to buoyancy forces arising from density variations in the fluid. There is often slight motion present from other causes; any effects of these random disturbances must be assumed negligible in an analysis of the process. Natural convection is generally to be found when any object is dissipating energy to its surroundings. This may be intentional, in the essential cooling of some machine or electrical device, or in the heating of a house or room by a convective heating system. It may also be unintentional, in the loss of energy from a steam pipe, or in the dissipation of warmth to the cold air outside the window of a room.
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