In chapter 7 we studied the propagation of uniform plane electromagnetic waves in free space and in media having loss. Although uniform plane waves are by definition only an approximation, their use enables many electromagnetic wave problems to be simplified particularly in the field of optics and radio waves at large distances from radiating antennae. Here we shall consider the propagation of uniform plane waves across an interface and develop the elementary laws of reflection and refraction. The idea of reflection of waves from a good conductor will enable an introduction to be given to guided waves, with applications in microwave propagation:
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