The Struggle between ‘Ali and Mu Āwiyah for the Caliphate
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Abu-Bakr, one of the earliest supporters and staunchest friends of Muhammad, whose alter ego he was and who had conducted the public prayers during the last illness of the Prophet, was designated (June 8, 632) Muḥammad’s successor by some form of election in which those leaders present at the capital, al-Madīnah, took part. He was to assume all those duties and privileges of the Prophet with the exception of such as related to his prophetic office—which had ceased with Muḥammad’s death.
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