Period of Conquest, Expansion and Colonization a.d. 632–61
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As long as Muhammad lived he performed the functions of prophet, lawgiver, religious leader, chief judge, commander of the army and civil head of the state—all in one. But now Muhammad was dead. Who was to be his successor, his khalīfah (caliph), in all except the spiritual function? In his rôle as the last and greatest prophet, who had delivered the final dispensation to mankind, Muhammad evidently could have no one to succeed him.
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- 1.Henri Pirenne, Mahomet et Charlemagne,7th ed. (Brussels, 1935).Google Scholar