If the applied load P consists of two equal and opposite parallel forces not in the same line (as in Fig. 2.1), then there is a tendency for one part of the body to slide over or shear from the other part across any section LM. If the cross-section at LM measured parallel to the load is A, then the average shear stress τ = P/A. If the shear stress varies, then at a point τ = δP/δA.
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