European expansion provoked political reactions from its Asian and African subjects, which were expressed sometimes by resistance or rebellion, sometimes by articulate political protests. These reactions appeared earlier than conventional chroniclers of colonial history used to believe. In many colonies, national consciousness and nationalist organisations developed during the nineteenth century; in other areas the First World War acted as a catalyst (no. 69). Although the war ended with further extensions of European control, notably in Turkey’s Asian provinces, this had to be carried out with acknowledgements to principles of Arab nationalism and international trusteeship which were to undermine the basis of imperial authority (no. 70). The immediate effects of the Russian Revolution, negligible in Africa, were stronger in Asia; although the Comintern failed to harness the revolutionary nationalism of the Kuomintang, the ultimate result was to encourage growth of an autochthonous and powerful Chinese Communist Party (no. 71). Meanwhile in India, Gandhi and Congress were effectively hallenging the British Empire to put its own ideology into practice (no. 72).
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