Advertisement

Social Aspects of Backwardness in Developed Countries

  • S. Groenman
Chapter
Part of the International Economic Association Conference Volumes, Numbers 1–50 book series (IEA)

Abstract

In his foreword to Kusum Nair’s Blossoms in the Dust 2 Gunnar Myrdal describes the human factor in development as of paramount importance: ‘People’sattitudes to work and life, hardened by stagnation, isolation and poverty, and underpinned by tradition and often by religion, are frequently found to be inimical to change of any kind.’ In addition to this general statement may I make a few carefully chosen quotations from Blossoms in the Dust? Writing about the Madras farmers the author tells us that ‘five acres on lease is the limit of their aspiration. … Their demands are calculated solely on the basis of the family’sconsumption requirements of rice at two meals a day …’ (p. 31). About Kerala she remarks that ‘an average Malayalee … would prefer the security of a small job than take any risk whatever’ (p. 40). Caste also is a drawback to development.’ Not one of these Brahmin farmers [in Bihar] ploughs, or is permitted by caste custom to plough and work on the land’ (p. 90). In West Bengal ‘many communities among the peasants consider it below their dignity to take their farm produce to the market for sale’ (p. 141). And one more quotation:’ [a landlord’s] reaction to land reforms — proposed imposition of a ceiling on land holdings and the fixing of a minimum wage for agricultural labour — is perfectly logical and natural. He feels that they will affect the landlords adversely.

Keywords

Social Aspect Social Mobility Social Hierarchy Underdeveloped Country Power Elite 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. E. Konijnenberg, ‘Research on the Possibilities of Employment for Young People in Agricultural Areas’ (1962).Google Scholar
  2. Unpublished research study conducted by the Sociological Institute of Utrecht University. See also S. Groenman, Staphorst (Meppel, 1947).Google Scholar
  3. S. Groenman, ‘External and Internal Causality in Cultural Change’, International Journal of Comparative Sociology, vol. I, no. i (Mar 1960) p. 103 ff.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. S. Ossowski, ‘Social Conditions and Consequences of Social Planning’. Paper for I.S.A. Congress, Stresa, 1956.Google Scholar
  5. J. Meyriat et al, La Calabrie, une région sous-développée de l’Europe méditerranéenne (1960) p. 201 ff.Google Scholar
  6. S. Moscovici, Réconversion industrielle et changements sociaux. Un exemple: la chapellerie dans l’Aude (1961) p. 161 ff.Google Scholar
  7. B. Hoselitz, ‘Tradition and Economic Growth’, in Tradition, Values and Socio-Economic Development, eds R. Braibanti and J. Spengler (Duke University Commonwealth Studies Center, Durham, U.S.A., 1961) pp. 94–5. He describes for nineteenth-century France a traditional orientation in entrepreneurship, somewhat narrow-minded and paternalistic, and believing in state support.Google Scholar
  8. R. Rochefort, Le Travail en Sicile (1961) p. 284 ff.Google Scholar
  9. B. Hoselitz, Tradition and Economic Growth, p. 106: ‘The predominance of Greek traditionalism had disastrous results’. See also pp. 100, 108.Google Scholar
  10. B. Hoselitz, Tradition and Economic Growth, p. 87.Google Scholar
  11. J. Spengler, ‘Theory, Ideology, Non-Economic Values and Politico-Economic Development’ in Tradition, Values and Socio-Economic Development, p. 4.Google Scholar
  12. G. Brenan, Spanish Labyrinth (1943) pp. 7, 94, 268.Google Scholar
  13. A. H. H. van Lier, Spanje, land van tegenstellingen (Spain, Country of Contrasts) (Meppel, 1952) pp. 64–5.Google Scholar
  14. ECOSOC Economic Commission for Latin America, Mar del Plata, Argentina, May 1963, ‘Social Development of Latin America in the Post-War Period’, document of 15 Apr 1964, pp. 45, 33, 38, 49. See also S. N. Eisenstadt, Modernisation: Protest and Change (N.Y., 1966), p. 85 ff.Google Scholar
  15. Eisenstadt, Modernisation: Protest and Change, p. 111.Google Scholar
  16. Eisenstadt, ibid., p. 91 for Latin America.Google Scholar
  17. Ibid., p. 92.Google Scholar
  18. Eisenstadt, ibid., p. 65.Google Scholar
  19. A. J. Toynbee quoted by F. van Heek in Het geboorteniveau der Nederlandse Rooms-Katholieken (The Birth-Rate of the Dutch Roman Catholics) (Leyden, 1954) p. 122.Google Scholar
  20. Toynbee, A Study of History, vol. II (1935) p. 209.]Google Scholar
  21. ‘Resistências à mudença’ (Rio, 1960) pp. 27–50. This is a seminar report on ‘Fatôres que impedem ou difficultam o desenvolvimento’. See also J. Lambert, ‘Croissance démographique et instruction dans les pays en voie de développement’, Population (1960) p. 655 ff.Google Scholar
  22. A. Sauvy, Théorie générale de la population, tome I (1952) pp. 241–2.Google Scholar
  23. T. Parsons, Structure and Process in Modern Society (Chicago, 1959) ch. iii.Google Scholar
  24. F. Löwenthal in Das kommunistische Experiment (Köln, 1957) p. 12, coins this expression.Google Scholar
  25. See the ECOSOC report, footnote 3, p. 28. Cf. P. González Casanova, ‘México desarrollo y subdesarrollo’, Desarrollo económico, vol. 3 (Apr-Sep 1963) nos 1–2. For Brazil see Lambert, ‘Croissance démographique et instruction dans les pays en voie de développement’.Google Scholar
  26. Lambert, ibid.Google Scholar
  27. S. Groenman, ‘Befolkningsproblemer i Holland og Danmark’, Økonomi og Politik (Copenhagen, 1951).Google Scholar
  28. E. F. Schumacher, Bergedorfer Gesprächskreis, Protokoll 15: ‘Entwicklungshilfe-Mittel des Aufstiegs oder des Verfalls?’ (1964).Google Scholar
  29. W. E. Moore, Man, Time and Society (N.Y., 1963) p. 143.Google Scholar
  30. Giuseppe Carone, ‘The Alpine Economy and its Present Problems’, in Regional Rural Development Programmes: with Special Emphasis on Depressed Agricultural Areas Including Mountain Areas, O.E.C.D. Documentation in Agriculture and Food, no. 66 (1964) p. 61 ff.Google Scholar
  31. C. Arnold Anderson, ‘The Impact of the Educational System in Technological Change and Modernization’, in Industrialization and Society, eds B. F. Hoselitz and W. E. Moore (1963) p. 259 ff.Google Scholar
  32. International Planning, Regio basiliensis, Bulletin, International Federation for Housing and Planning (1967). Soziologisches Seminar des Instituts für Sozialwissenschaften der Universität Basel, Soziologische Regio Untersuchung (1965).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Economic Association 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Groenman
    • 1
  1. 1.Sociologisch Instituut van de RijksuniversiteitUtrechtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations