By the early 1990s the cultural scene in China was more diversified than ever since the founding of the People’s Republic, and for the first time commercial, rather than political, factors were determining the majority of what was published and produced. Guidelines from party leaders were no longer the main agents of cultural change. As the market economy made its way into literature and the arts, ideological control weakened (despite the Tiananmen crackdown). Along with the rapid development of the media and publishing industry, literature split into many genres and levels, each appealing to different audiences.
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