Conversion of Military R&D: Concepts and Complications

  • Peter Southwood
  • Yuri Andreev


The term ‘conversion’ implies a deep change. It involves a radical transformation. When applied to military industries the idea of conversion recalls the age-old vision of a society without war in which swords would be turned into plowshares.


Military Expenditure Military Spending North Atlantic Treaty Organization Procurement Process Military Industry 
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  1. 2.
    Jan Oberg, ‘Is the Conversion Idea to be Converted? Some Sceptical Comments from a Non-Convert,’ in Militarization and Arms Production, ed. Helena Tuomi and Raimo Vayrynen (Beckenham: Croom Helm, 1983), p. 295.Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    See Council for Science and Society, UK Military R&D (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986);Google Scholar
  3. and Ian Davis, Military R&D in Europe: Collaboration Without Control?, Current Decisions Report No. 11 (Oxford: Oxford Research Group, October 1992), p. iv.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (POST), Relationships Between Defence & Civil Science and Technology (London: POST, May 1991), p. 4.Google Scholar
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    Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, Conversion and Diversification of Defence Technology and Manufacturing (London: POST, October 1992), p. 7.Google Scholar
  6. 9.
    Inga Thorsson, In Pursuit of Disarmament: Conversion from Military to Civil Production in Sweden, 2 vols. (Stockholm: Liber, 1984–85), 1A, p. 301.Google Scholar
  7. 11.
    See, for instance, Robert DeGrasse, Jr., Military Expansion, Economic Decline: The Impact of Military Spending on U.S. Economic Performance (New York: M.E. Sharp with Council on Economic Priorities, 1983);Google Scholar
  8. and Malcolm Chalmers, Paying for Defence: Military Spending and British Decline (London: Pluto Press, 1985).Google Scholar
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    Peter Southwood, Disarming Military Industries: Turning an Outbreak of Peace into an Enduring Legacy (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 14.
    K. Adelman and N. Augustine, ‘Defense Conversion: Bulldozing the Management,’ Foreign Affairs 71 (Spring 1992), pp. 26–47.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Southwood
  • Yuri Andreev

There are no affiliations available

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