Consideration of qualitative evidence and empirical relationships as discussed in chapter 2, while extremely valuable and indeed providing the basis for structural design codes, does not provide a detailed insight into the behaviour of masonry. A number of investigators have therefore attempted to derive theories of failure based on the fundamental properties of the component materials. The earliest of these would appear to be due to Haller , published in 1959. Haller’s formula, however, can give masonry strengths exceeding that of the masonry unit and is thus not generally valid.
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