So far we have looked at members subjected to either pure tension, compression or bending. However, in real structures, members are often subjected to a combination of axial force and bending. This chapter is concerned with how the resulting stresses are combined. Consideration is given to both an elastic serviceability approach (i.e. what are the stresses under working loads?) and an ultimate design approach (i.e. is there an adequate safety factor against ultimate collapse?).
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