The debate about the nature of culture has a long history (see Archer, 1988) and has been at the heart of sociological, historical and anthropological debates about the relationship between individual action and the nature of society. Because of this it is impossible to do justice to the debate in a book of this size — and moreover, arcane aspects of the debate that are important in terms of social theory are not usually relevant to the problems of multinational organisations. As such this section will stress one particular aspect of the debate that does have implications for managers. This concerns the way in which culture has been defined in terms of different and often conflicting theoretical perspectives.
KeywordsNational Culture Natural Attitude Multinational Organisation Cultural Order Eastern European State
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