Who Has the Power and How Did They Get It?

  • M. Donald Hancock
  • David P. Conradt
  • B. Guy Peters
  • William Safran
  • Raphael Zariski
Chapter

Abstract

Since 1990, and especially since 1992, the Italian party system has undergone a sweeping realignment. But during the 1946–90 period, this party system appeared to be relatively stable, with relatively few shifts in party identity, party strength, and voting behavior. In order to put contemporary changes in perspective, it is necessary to survey briefly some of the principal features of the traditional pre-1990 party system, which still appeared to be salvageable as recently as 1992.

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Notes

  1. 1.
    See Raphael Zariski, “Italy,” in Western European Party Systems: Trends and Prospects, ed. Peter H. Merkl (New York: Free Press, 1980), 122–52.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ibid., 130; and “The New Parliament,” News from Italy (published by the Fondazione Giovanni Agnelli), 10 (July 1983): 11. See also Robert H. Evans, “The Italian Election of June 1987,” Italian Journal 1 (1987): 15.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Zariski, “Italy,” 131, and “New Parliament,” 11. See also “A Comprehensive Report on the 1987 Political Elections: Nine Tables of Statistical Data,” Italian Journal 1 (1987): 24.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Giorgio Galli, Il Bipartitismo Imperfetto (Bologna: Il Mulino, 1966).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Evans, “Italian Election,” 12.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    For the disastrous effects of the corruption scandals and the Mafia connections on the DC, the PSI, and the minor center parties, see Mario Caciagli, “Italie 1993: vers la Second République?” Revue Française de Science Politique, April 1993, 229–56.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Under the new election law of 1993, three-fourths of the seats in the Chamber of Deputies were allocated to single-member districts that could be won by the candidate of a party (or alliance of parties) if he or she obtained a plurality of the votes cast. The other one-fourth were to be distributed on the basis of proportional representation. Since several parties did not run candidates in every single-member district, party voting performance is calculated on the basis of each party’s share of the PR vote.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    For the results of the 1994 elections, see Edmondo Berselli, “Solution on the Right: The Evolving Political Scenario,” Italian Journal 8, nos. 1 and 2 (1994): 13–21; Robert H. Evans, “Italy ... Quo Vadis?” Italian journal 8, nos. 1 and 2 (1994): 4–12; Michael Gallagher, Michael Laver, Peter Mair, Representative Government in Western Europe, 2d ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995), 168–69; Mark Gilbert, “Italy Turns Rightwards,” Contemporary Review 265 (July 1994): 4–10; and Francesco Sidoti, “The Significance of the Italian Election,” Parliamentary Affairs 47 (July 1994): 333–47.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    La Repubblica, 31 March 1994, 13.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Donald L.M. Blackmer, “Continuity and Change in Postwar Italian Communism,” in Communism in Italy and France, ed. Donald L.M. Blackmer and Sidney Tarrow (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1975), 2.1–68.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    On the PCI program in 1994, see Evans, “Italy ... Quo Vadis?” 10; and Sidoti, “Significance of the Italian Elections,” 336–37.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
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  13. 13.
    “Centro sinestra e politica locale,” Il Mulino 12 (March 1963): 240.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    For recent discussions of the Northern League, see Tom Gallagher, “The Regional Dimension in Italy’s Political Upheaval: Role of the Northern League 1984–1993,” Government and Opposition 29 (Summer 1994): 456–68; and Dwayne Woods, “The Crisis of the Italian Party-State and the Rise of the Lombard League,” Telos 93 (Fall 1992): 111–26.Google Scholar
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  16. 16.
    Evans, “Italy ...Quo Vadis?” 10–11; and Sidoti, “Significance of the Italian Elections,” 339–40.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    “Hanging On,” The Economist, 26 November 1994, 59–60.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Evans, “Italy ... Quo Vadis?” 10–11; and Sidoti, “Significance of Italian Election,” 342–44.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    For a fuller discussion of the Italian electoral system, see Raphael Zariski, Italy: The Politics of Uneven Development (Hinsdale, 111.: Dryden Press, 1972).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    On the 1993 election and its effects, see Evans, “Italy ... Quo Vadis?” 6–8; and Gallagher, Laver, and Mair, Representative Government in Western Europe, 168–69.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Arturo Parisi and Gianfranco Pasquino, “Changes in Italian Electoral Behaviour: The Relationship between Parties and Voters,” in Italy in Transition: Conflict and Consensus, ed. Peter Lange and Sidney Tarrow (London: Frank Cass, 1980), 6–30.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Evans, “Italy ... Quo Vadis?” 11–12.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gianfranco Pasquino, “Italian Christian Democracy: A Party for All Seasons?” in Lange and Tarrow, Italy in Transition, 92–93.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Raphael Zariski, “Italy: The Fragmentation of Power and Its Consequences,” in First World Interest Groups: A Comparative Perspective, ed. Clive S. Thomas (Westport, Conn.: Greenwood, 1993),127–38Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Macmillan Publishers Limited 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Donald Hancock
    • 1
  • David P. Conradt
    • 2
  • B. Guy Peters
    • 3
  • William Safran
    • 4
  • Raphael Zariski
    • 5
  1. 1.Vanderbilt UniversityUSA
  2. 2.East Carolina UniversityUSA
  3. 3.University of PittsburghUSA
  4. 4.University of ColoradoBoulderUSA
  5. 5.University of NebraskaLincolnUSA

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