Respiratory Disorders

  • Martin L Engman
  • Rodney C Richie

Abstract

Lung disorders are common in the general population. Chronic bronchitis affects 10–25 percent of the US population, asthma 5 percent and emphysema about 3 percent. In 1992 these chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases were the fourth leading cause of mortality in the USA, accounting for more than 91 800 deaths.1 Pneumonia is the sixth leading cause of death in the USA.2 It has been estimated that 2–4 million cases of community-acquired pneumonia occur in the USA each year and that as many as 20 percent of these require hospitalization. Occupational lung disease, cystic fibrosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis and other respiratory disorders affect many others. Accordingly, life insurance applications from persons with a variety of respiratory disorders are frequently encountered, and the underwriter and medical consultant are called on with some regularity to render assessments of the mortality risk associated with various pulmonary impairments.

Keywords

Influenza Vasculitis Measle Kaolin Glomerulonephritis 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Kochanek KD, Judson BL. Advance report of final mortality statistics, 1992. Monthly Vital Statistics Report 1995; 43: 1–73, 1995.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Campbell CD. Overview of community acquired pneumonia. Med Clin North Am 1994; 78: 1035–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anthonison NR. Home oxygen therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Clin Chest Med 1986; 7: 673–8.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Clini E, Vitacca M, Foglio K et al. Long-term home care programmes may reduce hospital admissions in COPD with chronic hypercapnia. Minerva Anesthesiologica 1996; 62(3): 57–64.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dalian R, Barozzi G, Pinelli G et al. Predictors of survival in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease treated with long-term oxygen therapy. Respiration 1994; 1(1): 8–13.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Strom K, Boman G: Long-term oxygen therapy in parenchymal lung disease: an analysis of survival. Eur Respir J 1993; 8: 1264–70.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    American Medical Association Guide to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment. 4th edn. American Medical Association, 1993; 5, 162.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kory RC. The Veterans Administration Army Cooperative study of pulmonary function. I. Clinical spirometry in normal men. Am J Med 1961; 3: 243–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Morris JF, Koski A, Johnson LC. Spirometrie standards for healthy nonsmoking adults. Am Rev Respir Dis 1971; 103: 57–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Crapo RO, Morris AH, Gardner RM. Reference Spirometric values using techniques and equipment that meet ATS recommendations. Am Rev Respir Dis 1981; 123: 659–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Knudson RJ, Lebowitz MD, Holberg CJ et al. Changes in the normal maximal expiratory flow-volume curve with growth and aging. Am Rev Respir Dis 1983; 127: 725–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Enright PL, Kronmal RA, Higgins M et al. Spirometry reference values for men and women 65 to 85 years of age: Cardiovascular Health Study. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993; 147: 125–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Petty TL. It’s never too late to stop smoking. JAMA 1993; 269: 2785.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bang KM, Gergen PJ, Kramer R et al. The effect of pulmonary impairment on all-cause mortality in a national cohort. Chest 1993; 103: 536–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lange P, Nyboe J, Jensen G et al. Ventilatory function impairment and risk of cardiovascular death and of fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction. Eur Respir J 1991; 4: 1080–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Peto R, Speizer FE, Cochrane AL, et al. The relevance in adults of air-flow obstruction, but not of mucous hypersecretion, to mortality from chronic lung disease. Am Rev Respair Dis 1983; 128: 491–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sorlie PD, Karmel WB, O’Connor G. Mortality associated with respiratory function and symptoms of advanced age. Am Rev Respir Dis 1989; et al. 140: 379–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Beaty TH, Newill CA, Cohen BH et al. Effects of pulmonary function on mortality. J Chron Dis 1985; 38: 703–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tockman MS, Pearson JD, Fleg JL et al. Rapid decline in FEV1, a new risk factor for coronary heart disease mortality. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995; 151: 390–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kuller L, Ockene J, Meilahn E et al. Relation of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) to lung cancer mortality in the multiple risk factor intervention trial. Am J Epidemiol 1990; 132: 265–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pinkham A. Personal communication. Lincoln National Reinsurance, 1996.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pare P. Conference summary: asthma structure and function. Chest 1995; 107 (suppl): 163S–169s.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bone RC. Goals in asthma management, a step-care approach. Chest 1996; 109: 1056–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    National Asthma Education Program Expert Panel Report: guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma. 1991 USDHHS (PHS) Publication number 1991–3042.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Woolcock AJ. Asthma. In: Murray JF, Nadel JA (eds). Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 2nd edn. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 1994; 1288–91.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Weiss ST. The origins of childhood asthma. Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease 1994; 49: 154–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Byrd JC. Environmental tobacco smoke. Med Clin North Am 1992; 76: 377–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kivity S, Shochat Z, Bressler R et al. The characteristics of bronchial asthma among a young adult population. Chest 1995; 108: 24–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Banner AS. The increase in asthma prevalence. Chest 1995; 108: 301–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wobig EK, Rosen R. Death from asthma: rare but real. J Emerg Med 1996: 223–40.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Weiss KB, Gergen PJ, Wagener DK. Breathing better or wheezing worse: the changing epidemiology of asthma morbidity and mortality. Ann Rev Publ Health 1993; 14: 491–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Taylor DR, Sears MR, Cockcroft DW. The beta-agonist controversy. Med Clin North Am 1996; 80: 719–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Leikauf GD, Kline S, Albert RE et al. Evaluation of a possible association of urban air toxins and asthma. Environ Health Perspect 1995; 103 (suppl 6): 253–71.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Koren HS. Associations between criteria air pollutants and asthma. Environ Health Perspect 1995; 103 (suppl 6): 235–42.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Weiss K, Wagener DK. Changing patterns of asthma mortality: identifying target populations at high risk. JAMA 1990; 264: 1683–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    De Palo VA, Mayo PH, Friedman P et al. Demographic influences on asthma hospital admission rates in New York City. Chest 1994; 106: 447–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gottlieb DJ, Beiser AS, O’Connor GT. Poverty, race and medication use are correlates of asthma hospitalization rates, a small area analysis in Boston. Chest 1995; 108: 28–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Greenberger PA, Miller TP, Iifschultz B. Circumstances surrounding deaths from asthma in Cook county (Chicago), Illinois. Allergy Proc 1993; 14: 321–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ulrik CS, Frederiksen J. Mortality and markers of risk of asthma death among 1075 outpatients with asthma. Chest 1995; 108: 10–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Silverstein MD, Reed CE, O’Connell EJ et al. Long-term survival of a cohort of community residents with asthma. N Engl J Med 1994; 331: 1573–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Marquette CH, Saulnier F, Leroy O et al. Long-term prognosis of near-fatal asthma: a 6-year follow-up study of 145 asthmatic patients who underwent mechanical ventilation for a near-fatal attack of asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992; 146: 76–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Medical Impairment Study 1983. Vol 1. Boston: Society of Actuaries and Association of life Insurance Medical Directors of America, 1986; 74–5.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Fessel M. Mortality of policyholders suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 36th meeting of Swiss Life Assurance Medical Directors, Zurich, 1984. Cited in: Mills RJ, Brackenridge RDC. Respiratory disorders. In: Brackenridge RDC, Elder WJ (eds). Medical Selection of Life Risks. 3rd edn. New York: Stockton Press, 1992; 489.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pinkham A. Personal communication. Lincoln National Reinsurance, 1993Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Picado. J Asthma 1989; 26: 231–6.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ernst P, Spitzer WO, Suissa S et al. Risk of fatal and near-fatal asthma in relation to inhaled corticosteroid use. JAMA 1992; 268: 3462–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bond WS. Toxic reactions and side effects of glucocorticoids in man. Am J Hosp Pharmacy 1977; 34: 479–85.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Woolcock AJ, Jenkins CR. Assessment of bronchial responsiveness as a guide to prognosis and therapy in asthma. Med Clin North Am 1990; 74: 753–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    US Public Health Service: Smoking and Health. A report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service. US Dept of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, Center for Disease Control. PHS (PN) 1103, 1964.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    US Dept of Health, Education, and Welfare. The Health Consequences of Smoking. Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. US Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of Smoking. Rockville, MD 20857, DHHS (PHS) 84–50205, 1984.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sherman CB. The health consequences of smoking. Med Clin North Am 1992; 76: 355–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Dockery DW, Speizer FE, Ferris BG et al. Cumulative and reversible effects of lifetime smoking on simple tests of lung function in adults. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988; 137: 286–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Burrows B, Knudson RJ, Cline MG et al. Quantitative relationships between cigarette smoking and ventilatory function. Am Rev Respir Dis 1977; 115: 195–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Beck GJ, Doyle CA, Schachter EN. Smoking and lung function. Am Rev Respir Dis 1981; 123: 149–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Burchfiel CM, Marcus EB, Curb D et al. Effects of smoking cessation on longitudinal decline in pulmonary function. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995; 151: 1778–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Snider GL, Faling LJ, Rennard SJ. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema. In: Murray JF, Nadel JA (eds). Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 2nd edn Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 1994: 1342–3.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Thun MJ, Day-Lally CA, Calle EE Excess mortality among cigarette smokers: changes in a 20 year interval. Am J Public Health 1995; 85: 1223–30.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Snider GL, Faling LJ, Rennard SJ. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema. In: Murray JF, Nadel JA (eds). Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 2nd edn Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 1994; 1344.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Eriksson S.A 30 year perspective on alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency. Chest 1996; 110: 237s-242s.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Clausen JL. The diagnosis of emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and asthma. Clin Chest Med 1990; 11: 405–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Burrows B. The course and prognosis of different forms of chronic airways obstruction in a sample from the general population. N Engl J Med 1987; 317:1309–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Butz RH. Mortality associated with chronic pulmonary disease. J Insur Med 1988; 20: 46–7.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Medical Impairment Study 1983. Vol 1. Boston: Society of Actuaries and Association of Life Insurance Medical Directors of America, 1986; 76–7.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Fessel M. Mortality of policyholders suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 36th meeting of Swiss Life Assurance Medical Directors, Zurich, 1984. Cited in: Mills RJ, Brackenridge RDC. Respiratory disorders. In: Brackenridge RDC, Elder WJ (eds). Medical Selection of Life Risks. 3rd edn. New York: Stockton Press, 1992; 485.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Clarke RD. Mortality of impaired lives. J Inst Actuar. Cited in: Mills RJ, Brackenridge RDC. Respiratory disorders. In: Brackenridge RDC, Elder WJ (eds). Medical Selection of Life Risks. 3rd edn. New York: Stockton Press, 1992; 485.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Fessel M. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in European insureds. J Insur Med 1991; 23: 38–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Luce JM. Bronchiectasis. In: Murray JF, Nadel JA (eds). Textbook of Respiratory Medicine 2nd edn. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 1994; 1402.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Selman-Lama M, Padilla RP. Airflow obstruction and airway lesions in hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Clin Chest Med 1993; 14: 699–714.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Epler GR, Colby TV, McLoud TG et al. Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. N Engl J Med 1985; 312: 152–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Wells AU, du Bois RM. Bronchiolitis is association with connective tissue disorders. Clin Chest Med1993; 14: 657–9.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lazarus SC. Disorders of the intrathoracic airways. In: Murray JF, Nadel JA (eds). Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 2nd edn. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 1994; 1476.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Clark JG, Crawford SW, Madtes DK et al. Obstructive lung disease after allogenic marrow transplantation. Ann Intern Med 1989; 111: 368–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Fraser RG, Pare JAP, Pare PD et al.Diagnosis of Diseases of the Chest. 3rd edn. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 1990; 2212.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Zielenski J, Tsui LC. Cystic fibrosis: genotypic and phenotypic variations. Annu Rev Genet 1995; 26: 777–807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Stern RC. The diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. New Engl J Med 1997; 336: 487–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Tsui L. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1995; 151:S47–S53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Egan TM, Detterbeck FC, Mill MR. Improved results of lung transplantation for patients with cystic fibrosis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1995; 109: 224–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Whitehead BF, Rees PG, Sorensen K et al. Results of heart-lung transplantation in children with cystic fibrosis. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 1995; 9: 1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Frederiksen B, Lanng S, Koch C et al. Improved survival in the Danish center-treated cystic fibrosis patients: results of aggressive treatment. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1996; 21: 153–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Liebow AA, Carrington CB. The interstitial pneumonias. In: Simon M, Potchen EJ, LeMay M (eds). Frontiers of Pulm Radiol. New York: Grune & Stratum, 1969; 102.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Carrington CB, Gaensler EA, Coutu RE et al. Natural history and treated course of usual and desquamative interstitial pneumonia. N Engl J Med 1978; 298: 801–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Erbes R, Shaberg T, Loddenkemper R. Lung function tests in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: are they helpful for predicting outcome? Chest 1997; 111: 51–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Fraser RG, Pare JAP, Pare PD et al.Diagnosis of Diseases of the Chest. 3rd edn. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 1990; 2611.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Newman LS, Rose CS, Maier LA. Sarcoidosis. N Engl J Med 1997; 336: 1224–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Fanburg BL, Lazarus DS. Sarcoidosis. In: Murray JF, Nadel JA (eds). Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 2nd edn. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 1994;1873–88.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Siltzbach LE, James DG, Turiaf J et al. Course and prognosis of sarcoidosis around the world. Am J Med 1974; 57: 847–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sharma OP, Maheshwari A, Thaker K. Myocardial sarcoidosis. Chest 1993: 253–8.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    James DG. Granulomatous liver disease. In: Schiff L, Schiff ER (eds). Diseases of the Liver. 7th edn. Philadelphia: JB Iippincott Company, 1993; 1500.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Disease of the Liver and Biliany System. 9th edn. London: Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1993; 463.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Sharma OP. Pulmonary sarcoidosis and corticosteroids. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993; 147: 1598–1600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Fraser RG, Pare JAP, Pare PD et al.Diagnosis of Diseases of the Chest. 3rd edn. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 1990; 2646.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Douglas NJ, Goetzel EJ. Pulmonary eosinophilia and eosinophilic granuloma. In: Murray JF, Nadel JA (eds). Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 2nd edn. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 1994; 1926–9.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    McHugh LG, Milberg JA, Whitcomb ME et al. Recovery of function in survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994; 150: 90–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Peters JI, Bell RC, Prihoda TJ et al. Clinical determinants of abnormalities in pulmonary function in survivors of the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 1989; 139: 1163–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Elliott CG. Pulmonary sequelae in survivors of the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Clin Chest Med 1990; 11:789–800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Zapol WM, Trelstad RC, Coffey JW et al. Pulmonary fibrosis in severe acute respiratory failure. Am Rev Respir Dis 1979; 119: 547–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Wang BM, Stern EJ, Schmidt RA et al. Diagnosing pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Chest 1997; 111:460–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wasserman K, Mason GR. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. In: Murray JF, Nadel JA (eds). Textbook of Respiratory Medicine Philadelphia: WB. Saunders Company, 1994; 1933–46.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Rosenstock L, Cullen MR. Textbook of Clinical Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 1994; 195.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Rom WN (ed). Environmental and Occupational Medicine. 2nd edn. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1992, 1–1493.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Murray JF, Nadel JA. Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 2nd edn. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 1994; 1977.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Nicholson WJ, Perkel G, Selikoff IJ. Occupational exposure to asbestos: population at risk and projected mortality, 1980–2030. Am J Ind Med 1982; 3:259–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Copes R, Thomas D, Becklake MR. Temporal patterns of exposure and nonmalignant pulmonary abnormality in Quebec chrysotile workers. Arch Environ Health 1985; 40: 80–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Dreessen WC, Dallavalle JM, Edwards Tl et al. A study of asbestosis in the asbestos textile industry. Public Health Bulletin No. 241. US Govt Printing Office, Washington, 1938.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Murray JF, Nadel JA (eds). Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 2nd edn. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 1994; 1962.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Rosenstock L, Cullen MR (eds). Textbook of Clinical Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 1994; 265.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kleinerman J. Pathology standards for coalworkers’ pneumoconiosis. Report of Pneumoconiosis Committee of the College of American Pathologists. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1979; 103: 375–85.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Rom WN. Basic mechanisms leading to focal emphysema in coal workers’ pneumoconiosis. Environ Res 1990; 53: 16–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    US Dept of Health and Human Services. Work-Related Lung Disease Surveillance Report. Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Publication No. 91–113, 1991; 78.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Morgan WKC, Seaton A. Occupational Lung Diseases. 2nd edn. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 1984; 334.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Pneumoconiosis redefined (editorial). BMJ 1972; 2: 552.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Attfield MD, Seixas NS. Prevalence of pneumoconiosis and its relationship to dust exposure in a cohort of US butuminous coal miners and ex-miners. Am J Ind Med 1995; 27: 137–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Kuempel ED, Sayner LT, Attfield MD et al. Exposure-response analysis of mortality among coal miners in the United States. Am J Ind Med 1995; 28: 167–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Perez-Padilla R, Salas J, Chapela R et al. Mortality in Mexican patients with chronic pigeon breeder’s lung compared with those with usual interstitial pneumonia. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993; 148: 49–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Schwarz MI, Cherniak RM, King TE. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and other rare infiltrative disorders. In: Murray JF, Nadel JA (eds). Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 2nd edn. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 1994; 1899.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Matteson EL, Gold KN, Bloch DA et al. Long-term survival of patients with Wegener’s granulomatosis from the American College of Rheumatology Wegener’s granulomatosis classification criteria cohort. Am J Med 1996; 101: 129–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Pope-Harmon AL, Davis WB Allen ED et al. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia. A summary of 15 cases and review of the literature. Medicine 1996; 75(6): 334–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Cheon JE. Leeks, Chung MH et al. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia: radiographic and CT findings in six patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1996; 167(5): 1195–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    King MA, Pope-Harmon AL, Allen ED et al. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia: radiologic and clinical features. Radiology 1997; 203(3): 715–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Chumbley LC, Harrison EG, DeRemee RA: Alletgic granulomatosis and angitis. Mayo Clin Proc 1977; 52: 477–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Fraser RG, Pare JAP, Pare PD et al.Diagnosis of Diseases of the Chest. 3rd edn. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 1990; 1826.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Butler J, Agostoni P. Cor pulmonale. In: Murray JF, Nadel JA (eds). Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 2nd edn. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 1994; 1778.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Rubin LJ. Pulmonary vascultis and primary pulmonary hypertension. In: Murray JF, Nadel JA (eds). Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 2nd edn. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 1994; 1693.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Abenhaim L, Moride Y, Brenot F et al. Appetite-suppressant drugs and the risk of primary pulmonary hypertension. N Engl J Med 1996; 336: 609–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    D’Alonzo GE, Barst RJ, Ayres SM et al. Survival in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. Ann Intern Med 1991; 115: 343–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Lombard RM, Zwillich CW. Medical therapy of obstructive sleep apnea. Med Clin N Am 1985; 69(6): 1325.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Bradley TD, Rutherford R, Grossman RF et al. Role of daytime hypoxemia in the pathogenesis of right heart failure in the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 1985; 131: 835–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Fletcher EC, Schaaf JW, Miller J et al. Long-term cardiopulmonary sequelae in patients with sleep apnea and chronic lung disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987; 135: 525–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Weitzenblum E, Krieger J, Apprill M et al. Daytime pulmonary hypertension in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988; 138: 345–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Parish JM, Shepard JW. Cardiovascular effects of sleep disorders. Chest 1990; 97(5): 1220–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Shepard JW. Cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea. Clin Chest Med 1992; 13(3): 442–9.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Hedner J. Nocturnal hypertension — under the cover of darkness. Blood Press 1995; 4: 197–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Noda A, Okad T, Yasuma F et al. Cardiac hypertrophy in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Chest 1995; 107: 1538–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Klitzman D, Miller A. Obstructive sleep apnea syndromes. Mount Sinai J Med 1994; 61: 113–21.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Findley L, Unverzadt M, Suratt P. Automobile accidents involving patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Am Rev Respir Dis 1988; 138: 337–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Stoohs RA, Guilleminault C, Itoi A et al. Traffic accidents in commercial long-haul truck drivers: the influence of sleep disordered breathing. Sleep 1994; 17: 619–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Gonzales-Rothi RJ, Foresman GE, Block AJ. Do patients with sleep apnea die in their sleep? Chest 1988; 94: 531–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Partinen M, Jamieson A, Guilleminault C. Long-term outcome for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients. Chest 1988; 94: 1200–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    He J, Kryger MH, Zorick FJ et al. Mortality in obstructive sleep apnea. Chest 1988; 94: 9–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Lavie P, Herer P, Peled R et al Mortality in sleep apnea patients: a multivariate analysis of risk factors. Sleep 1995; 18(3): 149–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Bliwise DL, Bliwise NG, Partinen M et al. Sleep apnea and mortality in an aged cohort. Am J Public Health 1988; 78: 544–7.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Pollack CP, Perlick D, Linsner JP et al. Sleep problems in the community elderly as predictors of death and nursing home placement. J Community Health 1990; 15: 123–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Mant A, King M, Saunders NA et al. Four-year follow-up of mortality and sleep related respiratory disturbance in non-demented seniors. Sleep 1995; 18(6): 433–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Fleury B et al. Long-term compliance to continuous positive airway pressure therapy (nCPAP) set up during a split night polysomnography. Sleep 1994; 17: 512–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Hoffstein V, Viner S, Mateika S et al. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with nasal continuous positive airway pressure. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992; 145: 841–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Brackenridge RDC. Respiratory system diseases. In: Lew EA, Gajewski J (eds). Medical Risks: trends in mortality by age and time elapsed. New York: Praeger, 1990; 8–60 to 8–61.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Brackenridge RDC. Respiratory system diseases. In: Lew EA, Gajewski J (eds). Medical Risks: trends in mortality by age and time elapsed. New York: Praeger, 1990; 8–56 to 8–57.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Donowitz GR, Mandell GL. Acute pneumona. In: Mandell GL, Bennet JE, Dolin R (eds). Principles and Practice of Infectious Disease. 4th edn. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1995; 629.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Finegold S. Lung abscess. In: Mandell GL, Bennet JE, Dolin R (eds). Principles and Practice of Infectious Disease. 4th edn. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1995; 646.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Bryant RE. Pleural effusion and empyema. In: Mandell GL, Bennet JE, Dolin R (eds). Principles and Practice of Infectious Disease 4th edn. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1995; 640.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Enarson DA, Murray JF. Global epidemiology of tuberculosis. In: Rom WM, Garay SM (eds). Tuberculosis. Boston: Little, Brown and Co, 1996; 57–75.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    American Thoracic Society. Treatment of tuberculosis and tuberculosis infection in adults and children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994; 149: 1359–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Colice GL. Decision analysis, public health policy, and isoniazid chemoprophylaxis for young adult tuberculin skin reactors. Arch Intern Med 1990; 150: 2517–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin L Engman
  • Rodney C Richie

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations