Japan and the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation

  • Raymond Hutchings


The process of making contact between the Russian Empire — Tsarist Russia — and Japan extended over almost two centuries and was fraught with many difficulties and vicissitudes which derived from distance, unequal strength of motive (the Russians needed a nearer source of supply than European Russia for their pacific settlements, whereas Japan, with no such need, pursued an exclusion policy), disasters, ignorance of the other country’s language and customs, and the stiffbacked regimes of both parties; on the other hand there were useful accidental contacts, both national and individual initiatives, and acts of benevolence. (See, in this connection, Lensen, 1959.)


Joint Enterprise Russian Market Timber Industry Irkutsk Oblast Khabarovsk Krai 
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Copyright information

© the estate of the late Raymond Hutchings 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raymond Hutchings
    • 1
  1. 1.Abstracts Russian and East European Series (ABREES)CroydonUK

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