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The Newborn and Neonatal Paediatrics

  • Philippa Mein Smith

Abstract

In the 1920s professional interest and official concern expanded to the newborn. From 1900 to 1920 reformers were preoccupied with infant mortality, but their priorities after 1920 were neonatal (first month) mortality in babies and the deaths of mothers in childbirth. The spotlight was on birth and how birth was managed, to ensure the survival of the newborn child and its mother. I am concentrating on the baby, as opposed to the mother, because infant and maternal mortality were different problems. Mother and baby died from different causes, with different determinants.1 While ‘maternal and infant welfare’ was an umbrella term, reformers’ own measures, the yardsticks of mortality, showed these were distinct problems that called for different strategies. Furthermore, in the minds of the powerful who devised pronatalist policies, it was the baby who mattered: mothers were fulfilling their duty to the race.

Keywords

Infant Mortality Maternal Mortality Neonatal Mortality Maternity Hospital Community Midwife 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 1.
    Irvine Loudon, Death in Childbirth: An International Study of Maternal Care and Maternal Mortality 1800–1950, Oxford, 1992, ch. 28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
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  3. 3.
    R. Marshall Allan, ‘Listerian Oration. The Future of Obstetrics’, MJA, 25 June 1927, p. 915Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    About one-fifth of maternal deaths were due to toxaemia, J.C. Windeyer, ‘The Toxaemias of Pregnancy with an Analysis of 158 Cases of Eclampsia’, TAMC, suppl. to MJA, 5 April 1924, p. 179 (18–20 per cent), A.M. Wilson, discussion following, p. 185 (22 per cent)Google Scholar
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  6. 6.
    Loudon, ‘Deaths in Childbed from the Eighteenth Century to 1935’, Medical History, vol. 30, no. 1, January 1986, pp. 1–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  12. 21.
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  14. 24.
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  17. 25.
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  23. 45.
    H.A. Ridler, ‘An Outdoor Ante-Natal Clinic’, MJA, 18 October 1924, p. 393Google Scholar
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  25. 48.
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  26. 50.
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  28. 58.
    Alison Cox, ‘Historical Outline of Tresillian’, draft paper, Sydney, January 1983Google Scholar
  29. 59.
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  30. 64.
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  33. 67.
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  35. 73.
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  36. 75.
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  39. 81.
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Copyright information

© Philippa Mein Smith 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philippa Mein Smith
    • 1
  1. 1.University of CanterburyChristchurchNew Zealand

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