Advertisement

The Rise and Fall of Modern Marketing — and its Rebirth

  • Christian Grönroos

Abstract

In mainstream textbooks modern marketing is regarded as being based on the marketing concept and to include management-oriented activities that revolve around the marketing mix and its four Ps. The needs and wants of the customers are established through market research, and in this way the customer input into the marketing planning and implementation processes that is required according to the marketing concept is achieved. Is this modern marketing today, in view of the current situation in most market-places and the continuing development towards more global competition, maturing markets and more sophisticated customers? The purpose of this chapter is to discuss what modern marketing is, and what it is not. It is suggested that the emerging relationship marketing is a new marketing paradigm that goes back to the roots of the marketing phenomenon. Fundamental cornerstones of what now is considered ‘modern marketing’ have to be rethought. Therefore, six propositions about relationship marketing are formulated and discussed.

Keywords

Market Orientation Total Quality Management Market Segmentation Relationship Marketing Marketing Concept 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbott, L. (1955) Quality and Competition (New York: Columbia University Press).Google Scholar
  2. Baggozzi, R.P. (1975) ‘Marketing as Exchange’, Journal of Marketing, 39, October, 32–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berry, L.L. (1983) ‘Relationship Marketing’, in L.L. Berry, G.L. Shostack and G.D. Upah (eds), Emerging Perspectives of Services Marketing (Chicago: American Marketing Association) 25–8.Google Scholar
  4. Berry, L.L. (1986) ‘Big Ideas in Services Marketing’, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 3(2), 35–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berry, L.L. and A. Parasuraman (1991) Marketing Services. Competing through Quality (New York: Free Press).Google Scholar
  6. Berry, L.L. and A. Parasuraman (1993) ‘Building a New Academic Field — The Case of Services Marketing’, Journal of Retailing, 69(1), 13–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bitner, M.J. (1995) ‘Building Service Relationships; It’s All About Promises’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 23(4), 246–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blomqvist, R., J. Dahl and T. Haeger (1993) Relationsmarknadsföring. Strategi och metod för servicekonkurrens (Relationship marketing. Strategy and methods for service competition) (Gothenburg: IHM Förlag).Google Scholar
  9. Borden, N.H. (1964) ‘The Concept of the Marketing Mix’, Journal of Advertising Research, 4(2), June, 2–7.Google Scholar
  10. Chamberlain, E.H. (1933) The Theory of Monopolistic Competition (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press).Google Scholar
  11. Christopher, M., A. Payne and D. Ballantyne (1992) Relationship Marketing. Bringing Quality, Customer Service and Marketing Together (London: Butterworth).Google Scholar
  12. Craig-Lees, M. and M. Caldwell (1994) ‘Relationship Marketing: An Opportunity to Develop a Viable Marketing Framework’, 1994 Research Conference Proceedings, Center for Relationship Marketing, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, June.Google Scholar
  13. Culliton, J.W. (1948) The Management of Marketing Costs (Boston, Mass.: Harvard University Press).Google Scholar
  14. Dixon, D.F. and K.J. Blois (1983) ‘Some Limitations of the 4P’s as a Paradigm for Marketing’, Marketing Education Group Annual Conference, Cranfield Institute of Technology, UK, July.Google Scholar
  15. Frisch, R. (1933) ‘Monopole — Polypole — la notion de force dans l’économie’ (Monopoly — polypoly — the driving force concept in the economy), Nationalokonomisk Tidsskrift, Denmark, 241–59.Google Scholar
  16. Grönroos, C. (1982) Strategic Management and Marketing in the Service Sector (Helsingfors, Finland: Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration) (published in 1983 in the USA by Marketing Science Institute and in the UK by Studentlitteratur/Chartwell-Bratt).Google Scholar
  17. Grönroos, C. (1989) ‘Defining Marketing: A Market-Oriented Approach’, European Journal of Marketing, 23(1), 52–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Grönroos, C. (1990) ‘Relationship Approach to the Marketing Function in Service Contexts: The Marketing and Organisational Behavior Interface’, Journal of Business Research, 20(1), 3–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Grönroos, C. (1994) ‘Quo Vadis, Marketing? Toward a Relationship Marketing Paradigm’, Journal of Marketing Management, 10, 347–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Grönroos, C. (1995) ‘Relationship Marketing: The Strategy Continuum’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 23, (4), 252–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Grönroos, C. (1996) ‘The Relationship Marketing Logic’, Asia-Australia Marketing Journal, 4 (forthcoming).Google Scholar
  22. Grönroos, C. and E. Gummesson (1985) ‘The Nordic School of Service Marketing’ in C. Grönroos and E. Gummesson (eds), Service Marketing — Nordic School Perspectives, Stockholm University, 6–11.Google Scholar
  23. Gummesson, E. (1987) ‘The New Marketing — Developing Long-Term Interactive Relationships’, Long Range Planning, 20(4), 10–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gummesson, E. (1990) The Part-Time Marketer (Karlstad, Sweden: Center for Service Research).Google Scholar
  25. Gummesson, E. (1995) Relationsmarknadsföring. Från 4P till 30 R (Relationship marketing. From 4P to 30R) (Malmö: Sweden, Liber-Hermods).Google Scholar
  26. Håkansson, H. (ed.) (1982) International Marketing and Purchasing of Industrial Goods (New York: Wiley).Google Scholar
  27. Hamel G. and C.K. Prahalad (1994) Competing for the Future. Breakthrough strategies for seizing control of your industry and creating the markets of tomorrow (Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press).Google Scholar
  28. Hunt, S.D. and R.M. Morgan (1994) ‘Relationship Marketing in the Era of Network Competition’, Marketing Management, 3(1), 19–30.Google Scholar
  29. Kent, R.A. (1986) ‘Faith in Four P’s: An Alternative’, Journal of Marketing Management, 2(2), 145–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kotier, P. (1992) ‘It’s Time for Total Marketing’, Business Week ADVANCE Executive Brief, 2.Google Scholar
  31. McCarthy, E.J. (1960) Basic Marketing (Homewood: Irwin).Google Scholar
  32. McGarry, E.D. (1950) ‘Some Functions of Marketing Reconsidered’, in R. Cox and W. Alderson (eds) Theory in Marketing (Chicago: Richard D. Irwin).Google Scholar
  33. McKenna, R. (1991) Relationship Marketing. Successful Strategies for the Age of the Customer (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley).Google Scholar
  34. McKitterick, J.B. (1957) ‘What is the Marketing Management Concept?’ in F. Bass (ed.), The Frontiers of Marketing Thought in Action (Chicago: American Marketing Association).Google Scholar
  35. Mickwitz, G. (1959) Marketing and Competition (Helsingfors, Finland: Societas Scientarium Fennica) (available from University Microfilms, Ann Arbor, Mich.).Google Scholar
  36. Mickwitz, G. (1966) ‘The Copenhagen School and Scandinavian Theory of Competition and Marketing’, in M. Kjaer-Hansen (ed.), Readings in Danish Theory of Marketing (Copenhagen: Erhvervsokonomisk Forlag) (originally published in Det Danske Marked, May 1964).Google Scholar
  37. Normann, R. (1983) Service Management (New York: Wiley).Google Scholar
  38. Peppers, D. and M. Rogers (1993) One-to-One Future: Building Relationships One Customer at a Time (New York: Currency/Doubleday).Google Scholar
  39. Piercy, N. (1985) Marketing Organisation, An Analysis of Information Processing, Power and Politics (London: George Allen & Unwin).Google Scholar
  40. Rapp, S. and T. Collins (1990) The Great Marketing Turnaround (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall).Google Scholar
  41. Rasmussen, A. (1955) Pristeori eller parameterteori — studier omkring virksom-hedens afsaetning (Price theory or parameter theory — studies of the sales of the firm). (Copenhagen: Erhvervsokonomisk Forlag).Google Scholar
  42. Reichheld, F.F. and W.E. Sasser, Jr. (1990) ‘Zero Defections: Quality Comes to Service’, Harvard Business Review, 68, September–October, 105–11.Google Scholar
  43. Romilla (1916) Reklame-laere (Advertising) (Trondhjem, Norway: Aktietryk-keriet).Google Scholar
  44. Sheth, J.N. and A. Parvatiyar (eds) (1994) Relationship Marketing: Theory, Methods and Applications, 1994 Research Conference Proceedings, Center for Relationship Marketing, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, June.Google Scholar
  45. Sheth, J.N. and A. Parvatiyar (1995) ‘Relationship Marketing in Consumer Markets, Antecedents and Consequences’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 234, 255–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sheth, J.N., D.M. Gardner and D.E. Garrett (1988) Marketing Theory: Evolution and Evaluation (New York: Wiley).Google Scholar
  47. Smith, A. (1950) The Wealth of Nations. An Inquiry into the Nature and Cause of the Wealth of Nations (London: Methuen) (first published 1776).Google Scholar
  48. Smith, W.R. (1956) ‘Product Differentiation and Market Segmentation as Alternative Marketing Strategies’, Journal of Marketing, 21, July, 3–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Stackelberg, H. von (1939) ‘Theorie der Vertriebspolitik und der Qualitätsvariation’ (Theory of business policy and quality variations), Schmollers Jahrbuch, 63/1.Google Scholar
  50. Stauss, B. (1994) Total Quality Management: Customer Orientation without Marketing?, Working paper No. 43, Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen Fakult ät Ingolstadt der Katolischen Universit ät Eichst ätt, Germany.Google Scholar
  51. Strandvik, T. (1995) Vision är kvalitet (Visionary quality), Research report, Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, Finland (forthcoming).Google Scholar
  52. Taylor, F.W. (1947) Scientific Management (London: Harper & Row) (a volume of two papers originally published in 1903 and 1911 and a written testimony for a Special House Committee in the USA in 1912).Google Scholar
  53. Vavra, T.G. (1994) ‘The Database Marketing Imperative’, Marketing Management, 2(1), 47–57.Google Scholar
  54. Waterschoot, W. van and C. Van den Bulte (1992) ‘The 4P Classification of the Marketing Mix Revisited’, Journal of Marketing, 56, October, 83–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Webster, Jr., F.E. (1992) ‘The Changing Role of Marketing in the Corporation’, Journal of Marketing, 56, October, 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Webster, Jr., F.E. (1994) ‘Executing the New Marketing Concept’, Marketing Management, 3(1), 9–18.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Christian Grönroos 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Grönroos

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations