There are several ways to examine the technical effort of manufacturing enterprises, none of them entirely satisfactory. On the input side, the most common measure used is R&D expenditures. This is not relevant for our purposes, since none of the sample firms conducts what is normally understood as formal research and development. Even the large MNC affiliates do not claim to do R&D in Ghana. Another measure of technological effort may be the employment of technical personnel, which has been discussed above. In any case, this is a very imperfect measure of effort, since two firms with the same numbers of technical personnel could invest quite different amounts of effort on improving their technologies.
KeywordsMarketing Dial Agro
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