Technical Effort

  • Sanjaya Lall
  • Giorgio Barba Navaretti
  • Simón Teitel
  • Ganeshan Wignaraja

Abstract

There are several ways to examine the technical effort of manufacturing enterprises, none of them entirely satisfactory. On the input side, the most common measure used is R&D expenditures. This is not relevant for our purposes, since none of the sample firms conducts what is normally understood as formal research and development. Even the large MNC affiliates do not claim to do R&D in Ghana. Another measure of technological effort may be the employment of technical personnel, which has been discussed above. In any case, this is a very imperfect measure of effort, since two firms with the same numbers of technical personnel could invest quite different amounts of effort on improving their technologies.

Keywords

Marketing Dial Agro 

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Copyright information

© Sanjaya Lall, Giorgio Barba Navaretti, Simón Teitel and Ganeshan Wignaraja 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sanjaya Lall
    • 1
  • Giorgio Barba Navaretti
    • 2
  • Simón Teitel
    • 3
  • Ganeshan Wignaraja
    • 4
  1. 1.University of OxfordUK
  2. 2.University of MilanItaly
  3. 3.World BankWashingtonUSA
  4. 4.Magdalen CollegeUniversity of OxfordUK

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