Gross Structure

  • H. E. Desch
  • J. M. Dinwoodie


Almost all woody plants with which we are familiar have three principal parts: roots, stems and leaves. The characteristic that separates trees from other woody plants is their single main stem, commonly referred to as the trunk or bole (Figure 2.1).


Growth Ring Building Research Cambial Zone Natural Durability Late Wood 
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  1. BRE (1985) Timbers: their natural durability and resistance to preservative treatment. Digest 296. Building Research Establishment (obtainable from BRE Bookshop).Google Scholar
  2. Hillis W.E. (1987) Heartwood and Tree Exudates.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. Ward J.C. and Zeikus J.G. (1980) Bacteriological, chemical and physical properties of wetwood in lining trees. In: Banch J. (Ed.), Natural variations of wood properties. Mitt Bundesforschungsanst Forst-Holzwirtsch 131: 133–166.Google Scholar

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© J.M. Dinwoodie 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. E. Desch
  • J. M. Dinwoodie

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