Chapter 4 introduced the concept of the operational amplifier, a high-gain multi-stage linear amplifier. The op-amp can be operated under ‘open-loop’ conditions, that is to say with no feedback applied, when it will exhibit high voltage gain, but rather a narrow bandwidth. However, it is much more likely to be operated with considerable amounts of negative feedback applied. The gain is reduced, of course, but the bandwidth is increased by a similar amount (the gain/bandwidth product of an op-amp is a constant).
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