Mental health services

  • Roslyn Corney


The author describes the multidisciplinary approach that is essential to the provision of high quality mental health services. The diversity of client needs means that more than one agency is involved. An overview of research in collaborative practice and an historical overview of service development supports the conclusion that co-ordinated services are better for mentally-ill people. Strategies for improving interprofessional and interagency work are discussed, especially in the context of primary health care teams.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Audit Commission (1986), Making a reality of community care London: HMSO).Google Scholar
  2. Babigian, H. (1977), ‘The impact of CMHCs on the utilization of services’, Archives of General Psychiatry, 34 (4), pp. 385–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beardshaw, V. and Morgan, E. (1990), Community Care Works (London: MIND).Google Scholar
  4. Brewin, C. R., Wing, J. K., Mangen, S. P., Brugha, T. S., MacCarthy, B. and Lesage, A. (1988), ‘Needs for care among the long-term mentally ill: a report from the Camberwell High Contact Survey’, Psychological Medicine, 18, pp. 457–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Broadhurst A. (1977), ‘What part does general practice play in community clinical psychology?’ Bull. Br. Psychol. Soc. 30, pp. 304–9.Google Scholar
  6. Brooker, C. and Simmons, S. (1985), ‘A study to compare two models of community psychiatric nursing care delivery’, J. Adv. Nursing, 10 pp. 217–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown, R., Strathdee, G., Christie-Brown, J. and Robinson, P. (1988), ‘A Comparison of Referrals to Primary Care and Hospital Outpatient Clinics’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 168–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bruce, N. (1980), Teamwork for Preventive Care (Chichester: Wiley).Google Scholar
  9. Brugha, T.S., Wing, J.K., Brewin, C.R., MacCarthy, B., Mangen, S. and Lesage, A. (1988), ‘The Problem of People in Long-Term Psychiatric Day Care’, Psychological Medicine, 18, pp. 443–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Butler, T. (1993), Changing mental health services (London: Chapman & Hall).Google Scholar
  11. Challis, D. and Davies, B. (1986), Case management in community care (Aldershot: Gower).Google Scholar
  12. Chisholm J. W. (1990), ‘The 1990 contract: its history and its content’, British Medical Journal, 300, pp. 853–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Clare, A. and Corney, R. (1982), Social work and primary health care (London: Academic Press).Google Scholar
  14. Clifford, P. and Craig, T. (1988), Case management systems for the long term mentally ill (London: Research and Development for Psychiatry).Google Scholar
  15. Cooper, B. Harwin, B., Depla, G. and Shepherd, M. (1975), ‘Mental health in the community, an evaluative study’, Psychological Medicine, 5, pp. 372–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Corney, R. (1980), ‘A comparative study of referrals to a local authority intake team with a general practice attachment scheme and the resulting social workers’ interventions’, Social Science & Medicine, 14, pp. 675–82.Google Scholar
  17. Corney, R. (1983), ‘The views of clients new to a general practice attachmen scheme and to a local authority social work intake team’, Social Science & Medicine, 17, 20, pp. 1549–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Corney, R. (1984), The effectiveness of social work in the management of depressed women in general practice (Psychological Medicine Monograph, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  19. Corney, R. (1990), ‘A survey of professional help sought by patients for psychosocial problems’, British Journal of General Practice, 40, pp. 365–8.Google Scholar
  20. Davies, M. (1989), Doctors, carers and general practice (London: MSD Foundation, Tavistock House).Google Scholar
  21. DHSS (1975), Better services for the Mentally Ill, Cmnd 6233 (HMSO: London).Google Scholar
  22. Department of Health (1987), Promoting Better Health (London: HMSO).Google Scholar
  23. Department of Health (1989a), Caring for People (London: HMSO).Google Scholar
  24. Department of Health (1989b), Working for patients (London: HMSO).Google Scholar
  25. Department of Health (1990), The Care Programme Approach for people with a mental illness referred to specialist psychiatric services, HC(90) 23, (London: HMSO).Google Scholar
  26. Dingwall, R. (1982), ‘Problems of teamwork in Primary Care’, in Clare, A. and Corney, R. Social work and primary health care (London: Academic Press).Google Scholar
  27. Dowell, D. and Ciarlo, J. (1983), ‘Overview of the CMHC’, Community Mental Health Journal, 19, pp. 95–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gask, L. (1992), ‘Training general practitioners to detect and manage emotional disorders’, International Review of Psychiatry, 4, pp. 293–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gilmore, M., Bruce, N. and Hunt, M. (1974), ‘The work of the nursing team in general practice’ (London: Council for the Education and Training of Health Visitors).Google Scholar
  30. Goldberg, D. and Blackwell, B. (1970), ‘Psychiatric illness in general practice’, British Medical Journal, 2, pp. 439–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Goldberg, D. and Huxley, P. (1980), Mental illness in the community, the pathway to psychiatric care (London: Tavistock).Google Scholar
  32. Griffiths, R. (1988), Community Care: Agenda for action, a report to the Secretary of State for Social Services (London: HMSO).Google Scholar
  33. Groves, T. (1990), ‘What does community care mean now?’, British Medical Journal, 300, pp. 1060–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gudeman, J. and Shore, M. (1984), ‘Beyond deinstitutionalisation’, New England Journal of Medicine, 311, pp. 832–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hall, J., Koch, H., Pilling, S., Winter, K. (1986), ‘Health services information and clinical psychology’, Bull Br. Psychol Soc., 39 pp. 126–30.Google Scholar
  36. Holden, J. M., Sagovsky, R. and Cox, J. L. (1989), ‘Counselling in a general practice setting: controlled study of health visitor intervention in treatment of postnatal depression’, British Medical Journal, 298, pp. 223–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Holloway, F. (1990), ‘Caring for people: a critical review of British Government policy for the community care of the mentally ill’, Psychiatric Bulletin, 14, pp. 641–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Holloway, F. (1991), ‘Day Care in an Inner City I and II’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 158, pp. 805–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hood, S. and Whitehead, T. (1990), ‘One path to a comprehensive district psychiatric services’, Health Services Management, August, pp. 174–7.Google Scholar
  40. Hoult, J. (1986), ‘Community care of the acutely mentally ill’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 149, pp. 137–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hunt, M. (1974), ‘An analysis of factors influencing teamwork in general medical practice’, M.Phil Thesis, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  42. Huntington, J. (1981), Social work and general medical practice (London: George Allen & Unwin).Google Scholar
  43. Huxley, P., Hagan, T., Henelly, R. and Hunt, J. (1990), Effective community mental health services (Aldershot: Avebury).Google Scholar
  44. Jones, K. (1988), The experience in mental health-community care and social policy (London: Sage).Google Scholar
  45. Jones, R. (1992), ‘Teamwork in primary care: how much do we know about it?’, Journal of Interprofessiona Care, 6, pp. 24–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Johnstone, E., Owens, D., Gold, A., Crow, T., MacMilln, T. (1984), ’schizophrenia Patients Discharged from Hospital’ British Journal of Psychiatry, 145, pp. 586–90.Google Scholar
  47. Langsley, D. (1975), ‘Community mental health: a review of the literature’, in W. Barton and C., Sanborn An assessment of the CMHC movement (Lexington, Mass:).Google Scholar
  48. Leff, J. (1993), ‘The TAPS Project: Evaluating Community Placement of Long Stay Psychiatric Patients’, The British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 162, supplement 19.Google Scholar
  49. Lee, S. and Murray, R. ‘The long-term outcome of Maudsley depressives’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 153, pp. 741–51.Google Scholar
  50. Lindholm, H. (1983), ‘Sectorized psychiatry’, Acta Psychiat. Scand., (suppl 304), 67, pp. 1–127.Google Scholar
  51. Mental Health Foundation (1990), Mental illness: the fundamental facts (London: MHF).Google Scholar
  52. Office of Health Economics (1989), Mental health in the 1990s (London: OHE).Google Scholar
  53. Pantellis, C., Taylor, J., Campbell, P. (1988), ‘The South Camden Schizophrenia Survey’, Bull. R. Coll. Psychiatrists, 12, pp. 98–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Parsloe, P. and Stevenson, O. (1990), Social Services Teams: the Practitioners’ view (London: HMSO).Google Scholar
  55. Patmore, C. and Weaver, T. (1990a), ‘Community mental health teams: lessons for planners and managers’, Good Practices in Mental Health, London.Google Scholar
  56. Paykel, E. S., Mangen, S. P., Griffith, J. H. and Burns, T.P. (1982), ‘Community psychiatric nursing for neurotic patients: a controlled study’, Br. J. Psychiatry, 140, pp. 573–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Powell, E. (1961), Speech by the Minister of Health, Report of the Annual Conference of the National Association of Mental Health, London.Google Scholar
  58. Pullen, I. and Yellowlees, A. (1988), ‘Scottish psychiatrists in primary health care settings: a silent majority’, Br. J. Psychiatry, 153 pp. 663–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Regier, D., Burke, J., Manderscheid, R. and Burns, B. (1985), ‘The chronically mentally ill in primary care’, Psychological Medicine, 15, pp. 265–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Robson, M. H., France, R. and Bland, M., (1984), ‘Clinical psychologist in primary care: controlled clinical and economic evaluation’, British Medical Journal, 288, pp. 1805–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ross, M. and Scott, M. (1985), ‘An evaluation of the effectiveness of individual and group cognitive therapy in the treatment of depressed patients in an inner city health centre’, Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners, 35, pp. 239–80.Google Scholar
  62. Ryan, P., Ford, R. and Clifford, P. (1991), ‘Case management and community care’, Research and Development for Psychiatry, London.Google Scholar
  63. Sayce, L. (1987), CMHCs Conference Report, National Unit for Psychiatric Research and Development, London.Google Scholar
  64. Scott, A. and Freeman, C. (1992), ‘Edinburgh primary care depression study: treatment outcome, patient satisfaction and cost after 16 weeks’, British Medical Journal 304, pp. 883–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Shepherd, M., Cooper, B., Brown, A. and Kalton, G. (1966), Psychiatric illness in general practice, (Oxford: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
  66. Skuse, D. and Williams, P. (1984), ‘Screening for psychiatric disorders in general practice’, Psychological Medicine, 14, pp. 365–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Strathdee, G., Brown, R. and Doig, R. (1990), ‘A standardised assessment of patients referred to primary care and hospital psychiatric clinics’, Psychological Medicine, 20, pp. 219–24.Google Scholar
  68. Strathdee, G. and Williams, P. (1984), ‘A survey of psychiatrists in primary care: the silent growth of a new service,’ J.R. Coll. Gen. Prac. 34 pp. 615–18.Google Scholar
  69. Taylor D. (1991), Developing Primary Care (London: King’s Fund Institute Research Report 10).Google Scholar
  70. Teasdale, J. D., Fennell, M. J. V., Hibbert, G. A. (1984), ‘Cognitive therapy for major depressive disorder in primary care’, British Journal of Psychiatry, 144, pp. 400–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tischler, G., Henisz, J., Myers, J. and Garrison, V. (1972), ‘Catchmenting and the use of mental health services’, Archives of General Psychiatry, 27, pp. 389–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Thomas, R. and Corney, R. (1992), ‘A survey of links between mental health professionals and general practice in six district health authorities’, British Journal of General Practice, 42, pp. 358–61.Google Scholar
  73. Thomas, R. and Corney, R. (1993), ‘General practitioners’ attitudes to mental health professionals: a survey, British Journal of General Practice. British Journal of Psychiatry, 145, pp. 9–14.Google Scholar
  74. Weller, B., Weller, M., Coker, E., Mahomed, S (1987), ‘Crisis at Christmas, 1986Lancet, 553–4.Google Scholar
  75. World Health Organisation (1973), Psychiatry and primary medical care (Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe).Google Scholar
  76. Yamanoto, J. (1984), ‘Orienting therapists and patients needs to increase patient satisfaction’, American Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 9, pp. 339–50.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Roslyn Corney 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roslyn Corney

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations