Advertisement

Elements of Psychology

  • Anne Byrne
  • Don Byrne
Chapter

Abstract

Psychology is the science of behaviour. It addresses the ways in which organisms behave, or respond to their environments, or react to the myriad stimuli which surround and continually impinge upon them. In more advanced organisms psychology seeks to explain how they perceive, learn, reason, think and feel. Psychology is concerned with the totality of behaviours evident on direct observation. But it also studies the nature of complex environmental stimuli evoking and initiating those behaviours, and the even more complex mechanisms, unobserved but inferred, which are interposed between the stimulus and response, and which mould, mediate, regulate, shape and impose recognizable patterns of individuality on behaviour. From the perspective of the human organism, psychology may be seen as the science most closely and centrally involved with understanding and explaining the adjustment of the individual to the environment. In so far as some individuals fail to adjust, psychology may also be seen as the science of behavioural abnormality or maladaptation. Psychology is, in fact and nature, the complete human science.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References/Reading List

  1. Atkinson, R.L., Atkinson, R.C., Smith, E.E. & Hilgard, E.R. (1987). Introduction to Psychology. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  2. Boring, E.G. (1950). A History of Experimental Psychology. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  3. Cohen, J. & Clark, J.H. (1979). Medicine, Mind and Man: An Introduction to Psychology for Students of Medicine and Allied Professions. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman & Company.Google Scholar
  4. Deaux, K. & Wrightsman, L.S. (1988). Social Psychology. Pacific Grove, California: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  5. Hall, J. (1982). Psychology for Nurses and Health Visitors. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  6. Heaven, P.C.L. & Callan, V.J. (eds) (1990). Adolescence: An Australian Perspective. Sydney: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  7. Hetherington, E.M. & Parke, R.D. (1988). Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  8. Hilgard, E.R., Atkinson, R.C. & Atkinson, R.L. (1975). Introduction to Psychology. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  9. Hine, F.R., Carson, R.C., Maddox, G.L., Thompson, R.J. & Williams, R.B. (1983). Introduction to Behavioral Science in Medicine. New York: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hoyenga, K.B. & Hoyenga, K.T. (1988). Psychobiology: The Neuron and Behavior. Pacific Grove, California: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  11. James, W. (1892). Textbook of Psychology. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  12. Kristal, L. (ed.) (1982). The ABC of Psychology. Middlesex: Penguin.Google Scholar
  13. McGhie, A. (1986). Psychology as Applied to Nursing. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  14. Marzillier, J.S. & Hall, J. (eds) (1987). What is Clinical Psychology? Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Morgan, C.T. & King, R.A. (1971). Introduction to Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  16. Nixon, M. (ed.) (1984). Issues in Psychological Practice. Melbourne: Longman Cheshire.Google Scholar
  17. Reber, A.S. (1985). Dictionary of Psychology. New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  18. Sarason, I.G. & Sarason, B.R. (1989). Abnormal Psychology. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  19. Watson, R.I. (1971). The Great Psychologists. Philadelphia: J.P. Lippincott Co.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© A. E. and D. G. Byrne 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anne Byrne
  • Don Byrne

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations