Non-tariff Barriers to Trade in Goods
While the Community succeeded in removing the tariff barriers to trade in goods between the Member States, as well as most of the more visible non-tariff barriers (quotas or quantitative restrictions and import licences) by the end of the 1960s, it did not succeed in eliminating the many other non-tariff measures which have just as much influence on the national segmentation of the Community market. Almost any regulatory divergence between two national markets represents a potential hindrance to trade. The most obvious obstacles are state aids to industry (subject to separate regulation under Articles 92 and 93 EC), public procurement restrictions favouring national suppliers and divergent product and technical standards, but included also are divergent retail market rules (e.g. advertising rules, shop opening hours, product licensing, price regulation), and even divergent labour market regulation measures which restrict the production or marketing of goods. Differences in the rules which govern the operation of the market in goods within the various Member States interfere with the creation of a level competitive playing field within which market forces may operate and market integration can occur ‘naturally’.
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