State Care and Control in Japan: The Employment Guidance and Referral Process for Secondary School Leavers

  • Kaori Okano


This chapter explores the ‘care’, ‘protection’ and ‘control’ features of the process by which Japanese high school students make decisions about and obtain paid employment after school. The discussion is conducted around three main issues: (a) student-teacher interaction through consultation; (b) school collective interests compared and contrasted with student individual interests; and (c) the way the overall referral and guidance process contributes to the maintenance of current societal practices, arrangements and structures.


Minority Student Senior High School Referral Process School Leaver Senior High School Student 
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Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kaori Okano

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